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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/22/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 3/22/2013)
Family ANACARDIACEAE
Contributor WILL H. BLACKWELL, JR. AND CALAWAY H. DODSON
Description Trees or shrubs with resinous bark. Leaves alternate, estipulate, imparipin- nately compound, less frequently trifoliolate or simple. Inflorescences paniculate, terminal or axillary, often with numerous flowers. Flowers small, actinomorphic, U or 8 9 by reduction; sepals usually 4-5, free or variously connate; petals dis- tinct, typically 4-5, infrequently absent; stamens 5-10(-12), all fertile or occa- sionally some or most reduced and sterile, the introrse anthers 2-celled and longitudinally dehiscent; disc or nectariferous cushions usually present and in- trastaminal, rarely extrastaminal or absent; pistil 1, the ovary superior, (1-)3(-5)- carpellate, 1-locular (rarely 2-5-locular), the ovule solitary (the ovary occasionally with 3 ovules only one of which is functional) and anatropous, the placenta apical, basal or less frequently lateral, the styles 1-5, terminal or excentric, the stigmas typically as many as the carpels. Fruit drupaceous or less frequently nut-like, most often dry but occasionally with a fleshy mesocarp; seed solitary, the embryo curved, the endosperm sparse or absent.
Habit Trees or shrubs
Distribution A family of 73 genera and about 600 species, chiefly tropical but extending into southern Europe and temperate Asia and America. Ten genera are known to occur in Panama; eight are native and two are introduced and probably natural- ized.
Note Several members of the family have considerable economic value; a number produce poisonous effluvia responsible for dermatitis in persons allergic to these secretions.
Key a. Leaves simple, entire. b. Disc extrastaminal; stamens 5; leaf-blades usually acuminate or acute at the apex .... 1. Mangifera bb. Disc intrastaminal or absent; stamens 7-12; leaf-blades obtuse to rounded or emarginate at the apex. c. Inflorescences paniculate; flowers 5-merous; stamens basally connate; disc lacking; ovule lateral; fruit a reniform nut borne on an accrescent, fleshy pedicel (the hypocarp) ...................................... 2. Anacardium cc. Inflorescences virtually spicate; flowers 4-merous in Panamanian repre- sentatives; stamens free; intrastaminal disc present; ovule apical; fruit an ovoid drupe, the subtending pedicel not accrescent ................ 3. Campnosperma aa. Leaves compound (rarely with simple and compound leaves on the same plant). d. Stamens 10, twice the number of petals. e. Styles 4-5 (if 3, then the flowers red and the inflorescences arising later- ally on old wood). f. Ovary and styles pubescent; ovary I-locular; well-developed stamens and pistil not present in the same flower; petals not uncinate at the tip; leaflets opposite or subopposite ..................................... 4. Tapirira ff. Ovary and styles glabrous; ovary 3 to 5-locular; well-developed stamens and pistil occurring in the same flower; petals uncinate at the tip; leaflets frequently both opposite and alternate (often on the same leaf) ........................................................ 5. Spondias ee. Styles 3 or single with a 3-lobed stigma. g. Drupes oblique and strongly compressed, the exocarp and mesocarp not separating; calyx cupular, the lobes shallow; petals acute or sub- acuminate; stamens and pistil well-developed in the same flower; leaflets petiolulate .................................................. 6. Mauria gg. Drupes neither oblique nor appreciably compressed, the exocarp deciduous; sepals free or connate only at the base; petals obtuse, rounded or truncate; stamens and pistil not well-developed in the same flower; leaflets sessile or subsessile (rarely with petiolules to 1 mm long) .................................................. 7. Schinus dd. Stamens 5, equal in number to the petals. h. Ovule subapical; the 3 styles separate to the ovary; calyx-lobes strikingly accrescent in fruit; fruit 3-5 times longer than broad; flowers pedicillate; a pistillode not present in male flowers .................................. 8. Astronium hh. Ovule basal or affixed laterally near the base; style single or 3-parted only at the apex; calyx-lobes not accrescent in fruit; fruit not more than 11/2 times longer than broad; flowers pedicillate or sessile, hermaphriditic or function- ally male flowers with a pistillode. i. Flowers sessile, each subtended by 3 persistent deltoid bracts; ovule attached laterally near the base; drupes red, the exocarp and mesocarp not separating; inflorescences not densely flowered; seed occupying a relatively small portion of the drupe lumen ............................ 9. Mosquitoxylum ii. Flowers with pedicels 1-4.5 mm long, not subtended by 3 persistent deltoid bracts; ovule basal; drupes white, the exocarp deciduous, the mesocarp waxy and with conspicuous dark streaks; inflorescences densely flowered; seed occupying the entire drupe lumen ... 10. Toxicodendron
 
 
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