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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/12/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 8/12/2013)
Family RUTACEAE
Contributor DUNCAN M. PORTER AND THOMAS S. ELIAS
Description Trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs, sometimes scandent or xeromorphic, armed or unarmed; stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits usually punctate glandular, the glands containing aromatic volatile oils. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, 1-3 foliolate or simple, persistent or deciduous; petioles sometimes winged; stipules absent. Flowers bisexual and/or unisexual, regular or rarely irregular, hypogy- nous, usually 3-5-merous, solitary and axillary or in various axillary or terminal, often cymose inflorescences; plants dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous; sepals rarely absent, free or connate, usually imbricate; petals free, rarely connate or absent; stamens as many as the petals and in 1 whorl, or twice as many to numer- ous and in 2 whorls, the outer whorl often shorter than the inner or occasionally reduced to staminodes, the filaments free or connate, often conspicuously dilated or rarely appendaged basally, the anthers 2(-4)-thecate, versatile, often glandu- lar tipped, introrse, longitudinally dehiscent; intrastaminal disc annular, cupular, or cushionlike, nectariferous, rarely obscure or absent; gynoecium of (1-)2-5 (-several) free or variously connate carpels, occasionally rudimentary or absent, the ovary sessile to stipitate, (1-)2-5(-several)-loculed, the ovules 1-2 or more per locule, usually anatropous and epitropous, rarely apotropous, placentation axile or rarely parietal, the styles basal, more or less lateral, or terminal, free, connivent or connate, persistent or deciduous, the stigmas free or connate, simple or lobed. Fruit of (1-)2-5(-several) follicles or drupes, or a berry, capsule, samara, or schizocarp; seeds 1 or 2 to several per locule, sessile or funiculate, the endosperm present or absent, the embryo relatively large, straight or curved, the cotyledons plano-convex, sometimes convolute, rarely plicate, the radicle superior.
Habit Trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs
Distribution The Rutaceae includes perhaps 150 genera and 1,500 species widely dis- tributed in the tropical and temperate regions of the world, but most abundant in tropical America, South Africa, and Australia.
Note Besides the species enumerated below, Triphasia trifolia (Burm, f.) P. Wilson, the limeberry, is to be expected as an escape in Panama. This native of south- eastern Asia, widely naturalized in the tropics, is cultivated as an ornamental and hedge plant throughout the tropics and subtropics, including Panama. It is an armed evergreen shrub with 3-foliolate leaves, 3-merous flowers ca. 1 cm in diameter, and a bright red, 1-3 seeded berry ca. 1 mm in diameter.
Reference Brizicky, G. K. 1962. The genera of Rutaceae in the southeastern United States. Jour. Arnold Arb. 43: 1-22. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946. Rutaceae in Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana Bot. 24: 398-410.
Key a. Fruits a fleshy hesperidium, drupe, or drupaceous berry. b. Leaves unifoliolate or simple. c. Leaves unifoliolate; branches usually armed with axillary spines; stamens 20-60 per flower; fruit a hesperidium ...... 2. Citrus cc. Leaves simple; branches unarmed; stamens 5 per flower; fruit a 2-seeded drupe ...... 6. Hortia bb. Leaves odd pinnate; branches unarmed; fruit a small berry ...... 7. Murraya aa. Fruits dry, a capsule, follicle, or samara. d. Flowers usually unisexual, rarely bisexual, small; plants usually dioecious ...... 9. Zanthoxylum dd. Flowers bisexual, usually large, showy; plants monoclinous. e. Fruits capsular, composed of 4 or 5 partially or completely fused carpels. f. Flowers small, 1.5-3.5 mm long, inconspicuous, greenish white; fruits large with a small to large hornlike projection on each segment ...... 4. Esenbeckia ff. Flowers large, 9-14 cm long, white to cream; fruits small, lacking a hornlike projection on each segment ...... 5. Galipea ee. Fruits follicular, composed of individual mericarps, occasionally fused only at the base. g. Corolla lobes free or fused only at the base ...... 1. Angostura gg. Corolla lobes united into a distinct tube. h. Flowers large, 1.5-3.0 cm long, showy, usually brightly colored, usually red to pink; calyx large, 1.0-1.8 cm long; each carpel of the fruit 2-seeded ...... 3. Erythrochiton hh. Flowers medium-sized, 8-15 mm long, usually white to cream; calyx small, 3-5 mm long; each carpel of the fruit 1-seeded ...... 8. Ticorea
 
 
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