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Published In: A Voyage to Terra Australis 2: 545. 1814. (19 Jul 1814) (Voy. Terra Austral.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: ABDUL GHAFOOR
Contributor Institution: Department of Botany, D.J. Sind Govt. Science College, Karachi.
General/Distribution: A family of 25 genera and about 240 species; tropical subtropical and warm temperate in distribution. Represented in Pakistan by 8 genera and 22 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United states Department of Agriculture for financing this research under P.L. 480. Thanks are also due to Messrs B.L. Burtt, Mr. Ian C. Hedge and Miss Jennifer Lamond of Royle Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, for their Helpful suggestions.


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Annual or perennial herbs or undershrubs, rarely trees, often xerophytic. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, 2-foliolate or pinnate compound or multifid, rarely 3-7-foliolate or simple, often fleshy or coriaceous, petiolate to subsessile; stipules persistent, coriaceous or spiny; leaflets 1-many, entire, eglandular, petiolulate to subsessile. Flowers solitary, axillary or subaxillary, or in cymes, rarely in spicate racemes, ebracteate, bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, hypogynous; disc convex or depressed, rarely annular or absent, often eglandular. Sepals 5, rarely 4, free or rarely basally connate, imbricate. Petals 5, rarely (3-) 4 or absent, free, rarely basally united, often clawed, inserted on disc, imbricate or contorted, rarely valvate. Stamens 5-15, in 1-3 whorls of 5 each, rarely (3-) 4, inserted on or at the base of disc, outer whorl of antipetalous stamens often connate with the claw, usually unequal in length, free, subulate or filiform filaments with or without scales inside at the base; anthers introrse, dithecous, longitudinally dehiscent. Carpels (2-3-) 4-5, syncarpous; ovary superior, usually sulcate or winged, sessile or rarely stipitate, usually 4-5-locular, rarely less or more loculed, locules rarely transversely locellate, placentation axile, ovules 2 or more, rarely 1 on each placenta, anatropous, pendulous or ascending; style simple, terminal, angular or furrowed, rarely styles 4-5 and free, stigma simple, capitate or obscurely lobed, rarely sessile or discoid. Fruit usually a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, rarely stony drupe, baccate or schizocarpic. Seeds 1-many per locule, albuminous or exalbuminous, embryo straight or very slightly curved.

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1 Ovary and fruit shortly stipitate (Cultivated tree)
+ Ovary and fruit not (or scarcely) stipitate (Wild herbs or shrubs) (2)
2 (1) Flowers in spike-like racemes or scorpioid cymes (3)
+ Flowers solitary in or near the leaf axils (4)
3 (2) Inflorescence a spike-like raceme. Leaves incised. petals (3-) 4, shortly clawed. Stamens (3-) 4. Fruit a dry capsule Tetradiclis
+ Inflorescence a scorpioid cyme. Leaves entire or 3-fid at apex. Petals 5, concave, shortly hooded at apex. Stamens 10-15. Fruit a succulent berry-like drupe Nitraria
4 (2) Stipules spiny Fagonia
+ Stipules not spiny (5)
5 (4) Leaves compound (rarely simple), opposite. Stamens 10 or less (6)
+ Leaves simple, alternate, multifid. Stamens more than 10 (12-15). Fruit tetragonous Peganum
6 (5) Sepals 4-5, imbricate. Petals 4-5. Stamens (5-) 10 (7)
+ Sepals 5, valvate. Petals absent. Stamens 5 Seetzenia
7 (6) Prostrate herbs. Leaves pinnate compound. Stamens alternately long and short. Fruit villous Tribulus
+ Shrubs, rarely erect herbs. Leaves palmately 1-3- foliolate (rarely simple). Stamens of equal elngth. Fruit not villous Zygophyllum
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