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Published In: An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany 21. 1836. (13 Jun 1836) (Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot. (ed. 2)) Name publication detail
 

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APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE) (Carrot Family)

(Mathias and Constance, 1944–1945)

Plants annual or perennial herbs. Stems usually branched, often hollow between the nodes. Leaves alternate and/or basal, less commonly opposite or whorled, variously compound or simple, petiolate or less commonly sessile, rarely perfoliate or peltate, the petiole base often expanded and somewhat sheathing, the stipules partially fused to the petiole base or lacking. Inflorescences simple or compound umbels of small flowers or sometimes condensed into heads, rarely appearing as small spikes, often with bracts subtending the flowers and at the branch points. Flowers mostly perfect (functionally staminate or pistillate flowers mixed with the perfect ones in some genera, or occasionally the outermost flowers of an umbel functionally sterile and with enlarged corollas), epigynous, actinomorphic or occasionally the outermost flowers of the inflorescence with some of the petals enlarged. Sepals reduced to 5 small teeth (slightly larger in Eryngium and some genera with enlarged perianth in the outer flowers), sometimes absent, when present usually persistent in fruit. Petals 5, the tips usually curved or curled inward. Stamens 5, the filaments free. Pistil 1 per flower, composed of 2 fused carpels, the ovary inferior with a swollen nectar disk at the tip, the styles 2, often expanded at the base. Fruits schizocarps consisting of 2 mericarps that separate along the inner side at maturity, the tips of the inner sides often remaining attached for some time to a slender, sometimes Y-shaped stalk. Mericarps indehiscent, 1-seeded, often somewhat flattened, with 5 more or less prominent ribs, some or all of these sometimes winged. Three hundred to 450 genera, 3,000–3,550 species, nearly cosmopolitan, most diverse in temperate portions of Northern Hemisphere and mountainous regions of the tropics.

Genera and species in this family can be difficult to determine. As with many large, morphologically complex families, a set of specialized terms has evolved to describe variation in the Apiaceae and to facilitate discrimination between genera. In species with compound umbels, the branches (stalks) of the inflorescence are called rays. When present, the involucre subtending an inflorescence consists of bracts, whereas the involucel subtending an individual umbellet of a compound inflorescence is composed of bractlets (sometimes referred to as bracteoles in the literature). The small petals (0.5–3.0 mm in most Missouri species) are usually incurved or rolled inward, making size measurements difficult, and petal lengths thus are not useful for differentiating most genera. In the fruits, the usually persistent stalk positioned between the mericarps, to which they often remain attached after beginning to break apart, is called a carpophore. Details of the fruits often require viewing under magnification. The sides of the mericarps that are joined prior to breaking apart are known as commissures, and the two ribs along the edges of each commissure are referred to as lateral ribs, to distinguish them from the dorsal rib along the opposite margin and the two intermediate ribs on the mericarp face between the lateral and dorsal ones. Fruits that are laterally flattened have narrow commissures relative to the sides and individual mericarps that appear relatively plump, whereas fruits that are dorsally flattened have broad commissures and individual mericarps that appear strongly flattened. In most species, longitudinal secretory canals known as oil tubes occur between the ribs; these contain aromatic oils or resins and, although usually visible on the fruit surface, are most easily seen in cross-sectioned samples.

The relationship between the Apiaceae and Araliaceae, as traditionally circumscribed, continues to be imperfectly understood, and some authors have advocated uniting the two into a single family, Apiaceae (Thorne, 1973; Judd et al., 1994, 2002). Molecular studies of a number of independent gene sequences (summarized in Plunkett et al., 1997; Downie et al., 2000) have suggested that although the situation is complicated, most of the genera can be classified into two lineages that correspond roughly to Apiaceae and Araliaceae. However, the genera traditionally included in Apiaceae subfamily Hydrocotyloideae, whose relationships were controversial even before the advent of molecular systematics (Cronquist, 1981), have been shown to represent several groups with different affinities. One cluster, including Hydrocotyle and some other non-Missouri genera, appears to be more closely related to the Araliaceae than Apiaceae, and probably is better classified as a morphologically aberrant basal group in that family. Because further studies involving larger samples of additional species will be necessary to resolve the complex relationships among the umbellifer genera, the traditional classification of the two families continues to be followed in the present treatment.

Most Apiaceae contain aromatic oils in secretory canals present throughout the plants (although not evenly distributed in all parts; canals in the mericarps, for instance, are known as oil tubes), and many species emit characteristic strong odors when bruised or crushed. In part because of these terpenoid oils, many species are used as food, garnishes, and/or spices, including dill (Anethium graveolens L.), celery (Apium graveolens L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), parsley (Petrosalinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman), and parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.). A number of species also are cultivated as garden ornamentals. However, many members of the family are extremely poisonous when ingested, especially the hemlocks (Cicuta, Conium), and inexperienced individuals should resist the urge to harvest plants from the wild for culinary experiments. After contact with the skin, a number of species also cause dermatitis, in particular phototoxic reactions (those brought on and mediated by continued exposure of the skin to sunlight or other strong light sources). The information presented for individual taxa below was taken primarily from Kingsbury (1964) and Roth et al. (1994) but should not be considered an exhaustive account of all toxic species in the family. Unless sure knowledge of the identity and properties of a given species is known, all wild members of the Apiaceae should be considered potentially poisonous or toxic to the skin.

Steyermark (1963) reported Aegopodium podagraria L. (goutweed) (Pl. 202 c, d) from Missouri, based on a single specimen from Jefferson County. This specimen, cited as being collected by Bill Bauer in 1940, could not be located during the present study. Aegopodium podagraria is commonly grown in gardens as a ground cover and spreads vigorously by branched rhizomes, often forming irregular patches of basal rosettes of large, glabrous leaves, these 1 or 2 times ternately compound, with large, oblong to ovate, coarsely toothed leaflets. The white-petaled flowers are in dense compound umbels usually lacking bracts and bractlets, and the flattened fruits are inconspicuously ribbed. Steyermark did not state whether the specimen he reported had green or variegated leaves (var. variegatum L.H. Bailey), but forms with mottled or white-margined leaves are common in gardens. Goutweed can persist at old homesites and eventually may become naturalized in Missouri.

 

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1.1. Leaves all simple, sometimes deeply lobed

2.2. Stems erect or ascending

3.3. Leaf margins entire; at least the uppermost leaves perfoliate, the lower ones sessile ... 8. BUPLEURUM

Bupleurum
4.3. Leaf margins toothed or lobed, sometimes with spiny or threadlike teeth; leaves sessile or petiolate, usually sheathing the stem but not perfoliate

5.4. Leaf margins with threadlike or spiny teeth or lobes; flowers sessile, in dense cylindrical or globose heads, each flower subtended by a small bractlet ... 18. ERYNGIUM

Eryngium
6.4. Leaf margins toothed and/or lobed but not spiny; flowers some or all noticeably stalked, in compound umbels (the umbellets sometimes appearing nearly headlike), the individual flowers without bractlets

7.5. Umbellets with all staminate flowers or with a mixture of perfect and staminate flowers; ovaries and fruits densely pubescent with hooked bristles, the fruits with mericarps lacking ribs ... 34. SANICULA

Sanicula
8.5. Umbellets with all or nearly all perfect flowers; ovaries and fruits glabrous, the fruits with mericarps noticeably ribbed

9.6. Flowers all with stalks 15 mm long; mericarps with the ribs noticeably winged ... 38. THASPIUM

Thaspium
10.6. Central flower of each umbellet sessile or with the stalk less than 0.5 mm long, the other flowers with stalks 14 mm long; mericarps with the ribs angled and often somewhat corky, but lacking wings ... 41. ZIZIA

Zizia
11.2. Stems prostrate, rooting at the nodes

12.7. Leaves mostly opposite or whorled at the nodes of the creeping stem, the blades lanceolate to ovate, narrowed, rounded, or truncate at the base; inflorescences subtended by 25 linear bracts ... 18. ERYNGIUM

Eryngium
13.7. Leaves mostly solitary at the nodes of the creeping stem, the blades circular to very broadly ovate or broadly kidney-shaped, peltate or deeply cordate at the base; inflorescences without bracts ... 22. HYDROCOTYLE

Hydrocotyle
14.1. At least some of the leaves 1 or more times compound

15.8. Ovaries and fruits variously pubescent with short to long hairs or bristles, the hairs or bristles sometimes hooked

16.9. Leaf blades at most pinnately, ternately, or palmately 1 time compound, the leaflets often variously lobed

17.10. Fruits inconspicuously and sometimes sparsely pubescent with short hairs lacking hooked or barbed tips; stems 60200(300) cm long, stout and coarsely ridged; leaves with the sheathing bases, at least those of the median and upper leaves, moderately to strongly inflated ... 21. HERACLEUM

Heracleum
18.10. Fruits conspicuously pubescent with hairs or bristles having hooked or barbed tips; stems 15100 cm long, relatively slender (except rarely in Torilis) and finely ridged; leaves with the sheathing bases not or only slightly inflated

19.11. Leaf blades palmately compound with 3 or 5(7) leaflets, these elliptic-lanceolate to obovate in outline, sometimes irregularly few-lobed; fruits with the hairs or bristles having hooked tips ... 34. SANICULA

Sanicula
20.11. Leaf blades pinnately compound, the leaflets lanceolate to oblong-ovate, usually deeply pinnately lobed; fruits with the hairs or bristles having minutely barbed tips ... 39. TORILIS

Torilis
21.9. Leaf blades 2 or more times compound or dissected

22.12. Fruits conspicuously pubescent with hairs or bristles having hooked or barbed tips (the hairs usually also apparent [but shorter] on ovaries at flowering time)

23.13. Leaves glabrous, the blades finely pinnately 24 times dissected into narrowly linear, often threadlike ultimate segments; stems glabrous ... 36. SPERMOLEPIS

Spermolepis
24.13. Leaves sparsely to moderately hairy, the blades 1 or 2 times pinnately compound, the leaflets lanceolate to oblong-ovate or ovate, usually deeply pinnately lobed, the lobes linear to elliptic-lanceolate, not threadlike; stems usually hairy

25.14. Fruits with secondary ribs between the primary ones, these winged and with a row of flattened bristles having minutely barbed or hooked tips, the primary ribs wingless and finely pubescent with straight hairs; involucre with the bracts leaflike, pinnately 1 or 2 times dissected with linear segments, rarely entire ... 16. DAUCUS

Daucus
26.14. Fruits ribless or with slender nervelike ribs, these wingless, the surface covered with hairs or bristles having barbed or hooked tips; involucre absent or with the bracts inconspicuous, entire, narrowly triangular to more commonly linear, often hairlike

27.15. Fruits tapered to a short beak at the tip, covered with short, stout hairs having hooked tips; sheathing bases of at least the uppermost leaves hairy along the margins ... 5. ANTHRISCUS

Anthriscus
28.15. Fruits narrowed to a blunt, beakless tip, covered with long bristles having minutely barbed tips; sheathing bases of the leaves all glabrous along the margins ... 39. TORILIS

Torilis
29.12. Fruits pubescent with short hairs lacking hooked or barbed tips

30.16. Leaf blades 2 or 3 times compound with distinct leaflets, these all or mostly 10 mm or more wide (except sometimes on the uppermost leaves)

31.17. Fruits 46 mm long, oblong-elliptic to broadly ovate-elliptic in outline, shallowly cordate at the base, flattened dorsally, the lateral ribs with broad, papery wings; inflorescences with 18 to numerous rays ... 4. ANGELICA

Angelica
32.17. Fruits 1024 mm long, linear to narrowly oblong-oblanceolate in outline, long-tapered at the base, flattened laterally, the ribs narrow, angled, lacking wings; inflorescences with 36(8) rays ... 28. OSMORHIZA

Osmorhiza
33.16. Leaf blades 24 times compound and/or dissected, the leaflets or ultimate segments 0.54.0 mm wide

34.18. Leaves all basal; petals yellow ... 26. LOMATIUM

Lomatium
35.18. Leaves alternate along the stems and sometimes also basal; petals white, pink, or purple, sometimes drying yellow

36.19. Fruits 410 mm long, linear to narrowly oblong-elliptic in outline, with 5 narrow to broad, low, blunt ribs, these lacking wings or bristles, the entire mericarp usually finely and uniformly hairy; involucre absent ... 10. CHAEROPHYLLUM

Chaerophyllum
37.19. Fruits 35 mm long, oblong-elliptic to oblong-ovate in outline, with secondary ribs between the primary ones, these winged and with a row of flattened bristles, the primary ribs wingless and finely pubescent; involucre of 415 leaflike bracts ... 16. DAUCUS

Daucus
38.8. Ovaries and fruits glabrous, sometimes minutely roughened with minute teeth or tubercles

39.20. Leaves at most once palmately, ternately, or pinnately compound, the leaflets usually discrete but sometimes lobed or relatively narrow

40.21. Leaflets with the margins entire

41.22. Fruits 47 mm long, strongly flattened dorsally, the lateral ribs with broad, spreading wings; leaves with the rachis and leaflets lacking cross-veins or partitions; leaflets (2)545 mm wide, glaucous on the undersurface; plants perennial, with clusters of tuberous-thickened roots ... 29. OXYPOLIS

Oxypolis
42.22. Fruits 24 mm long, slightly flattened laterally, the ribs lacking wings, but the lateral ribs with small, corky extensions over the commissures; leaves with the rachis or leaflets having irregular fine cross-veins or partitions; leaflets 16 mm wide, not glaucous; plants annual, with fibrous roots

43.23. Leaf blades (except those of simple leaves) palmately compound, the 35 leaflets all attached at the tip of the petiole; fruits with a short but noticeable beak ... 15. CYNOSCIADIUM

Cynosciadium
44.23. Leaf blades (except those of simple leaves) pinnately compound, the 311 leaflets attached along a rachis; fruits lacking a beak ... 25. LIMNOSCIADIUM

Limnosciadium
45.21. Leaflets lobed or with the margins toothed

46.24. Leaves with the sheathing bases, at least those of the median and upper leaves, moderately to strongly inflated; stems noticeably pubescent, the hairs easily visible to the naked eye; fruits 712 mm long ... 21. HERACLEUM

Heracleum
47.24. Leaves with the sheathing bases not or only slightly inflated; stems glabrous or inconspicuously short-hairy, the hairs visible only with magnification; fruits 1.57.0(8.0) mm long

48.25. Leaves with no more than 3 leaflets (these sometimes lobed)

49.26. Petals white; fruits narrowly oblong or narrowly oblong-elliptic in outline

50.27. Leaflets or ultimate segments oblong-lanceolate to elliptic or obovate, the margins sharply and often irregularly toothed (often doubly toothed), the teeth lacking spiny tips; fruits 48 mm long, narrowly oblong-elliptic in outline; involucre absent or of 1 spreading to ascending bract ... 14. CRYPTOTAENIA

Cryptotaenia
51.27. Leaflets or ultimate segments linear to narrowly oblong, the margins finely and regularly toothed, the teeth with minute, thickened, spiny tips; fruits 25 mm long, narrowly oblong in outline; involucre of 312 spreading to loosely reflexed bracts ... 19. FALCARIA

Falcaria
52.26. Petals yellow or dark purple; fruits 24 mm long, ovate to oblong-ovate in outline

53.28. Flowers all with stalks 1 mm or longer; fruits with the ribs winged ... 38. THASPIUM

Thaspium
54.28. Central flower of each umbellet sessile or with a stalk less than 0.5 mm long (the other flowers with stalks 14 mm long); fruits with the ribs lacking wings ... 41. ZIZIA

Zizia
55.25. At least some of the leaves with 521 leaflets

56.29. Petals yellow; involucel and involucre both absent; leaflets or ultimate divisions rounded or narrowed to a blunt point at the tip ... 30. PASTINACA

Pastinaca
57.29. Petals white; involucel present; involucre present (except in Apium); leaflets or ultimate divisions narrowed or tapered to a sharp point at the tip (rounded in Apium)

58.30. Involucel absent; leaflets or ultimate divisions obovate or narrowly to broadly wedge-shaped, rounded at the tip ... 6. APIUM

Apium
59.30. Involucel present; leaflets or ultimate divisions linear to narrowly oblong-lanceolate or ovate to broadly triangular, sharply pointed at the tip

60.31. Leaflets with relatively few teeth (less than 8 teeth per side) distributed mostly above the middle ... 29. OXYPOLIS

Oxypolis
61.31. Leaflets with numerous teeth distributed more or less equally along the margins

62.32. Fruits with narrow, inconspicuous ribs lacking wings; stems spreading, at least toward the base; leaf blades (at least those of the upper leaves) irregularly divided and toothed ... 7. BERULA

Berula
63.32. Fruits with conspicuous ribs having short, thick, corky wings; stems erect or ascending; leaf blades (except those of submerged leaves) not divided, finely and regularly toothed ... 35. SIUM

Sium
64.20. At least some of the leaves 2 or more times compound or dissected, the leaflets discrete or sometimes not discernable

65.33. Leaves all basal or near the stem base

66.34. Petals white; fruits with the ribs wingless or narrowly and inconspicuously winged; involucre of 1 leaflike, dissected bract; rays 14 ... 17. ERIGENIA

Erigenia
67.34. Petals yellow; fruits with the lateral ribs broadly winged; involucre absent or rarely of 13 narrowly triangular, entire bracts; rays 10 to numerous ... 26. LOMATIUM

Lomatium
68.33. Leaves alternate along the stems and sometimes also basal

69.35. Leaves dissected, not divided into well-differentiated leaflets, the ultimate segments linear to narrowly elliptic (sometimes threadlike); fruits with the ribs lacking wings

70.36. Involucre of 215 bracts, these sometimes relatively inconspicuous

71.37. Rays 24; fruits 810 mm long, linear to narrowly oblong in outline ... 40. TREPOCARPUS

Trepocarpus
72.37. Rays 425; fruits 15 mm long, oblong-elliptic to broadly ovate to nearly circular in outline

73.38. Plants of aquatic habitats, with only the submerged leaves dissected 2 or more times, those of emergent stems 1 time pinnately compound (the leaflets often lobed); stems spreading with ascending apical portions and branches, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes ... 7. BERULA

Berula
74.38. Plants in wet to dry habitats, but the leaves all similar in division pattern (the uppermost leaves generally smaller than those lower on the plant), all dissected 2 or more times; stems erect or ascending, not rooting at the lower nodes

75.39. Involucel of 814 bractlets; plants perennial, with clusters of mostly 2 or 3 tuberous-thickened roots ... 31. PERIDERIDIA

Perideridia
76.39. Involucel of 15(7) bractlets; plants annual or biennial, with fibrous roots or a somewhat tuberous-thickened taproot

77.40. Leaf blades with the ultimate divisions linear to narrowly elliptic, but not threadlike; sepals absent; fruits oblong-elliptic in outline; plants biennial, with somewhat tuberous-thickened taproots ... 9. CARUM

Carum
78.40. Leaf blades with the ultimate divisions very fine and threadlike; sepals minute, narrowly to broadly triangular scales; fruits broadly ovate to nearly circular in outline; plants annual, with finely fibrous roots ... 33. PTILIMNIUM

Ptilimnium
79.36. Involucre absent or at most of 1 bract

80.41. Involucel absent; petals yellow

81.42. Fruits 46 mm long, flattened dorsally, at least the lateral ribs narrowly but noticeably winged; petioles with the sheathing portion up to 3 cm long ... 3. ANETHUM

Anethum
82.42. Fruits 3.54.0 mm long, slightly flattened laterally, the ribs more or less angled but not winged; petioles of the larger leaves with the sheathing portion 310 cm long ... 20. FOENICULUM

Foeniculum
83.41. Involucel of 114 bractlets, these sometimes inconspicuous; petals white

84.43. Involucel of 814 inconspicuous bractlets; plants perennial, with clusters of mostly 2 or 3 tuberous-thickened roots ... 31. PERIDERIDIA

Perideridia
85.43. Involucel of 16 bractlets, these conspicuous or inconspicuous; plants annual, with relatively slender taproots

86.44. Sepals minute triangular teeth (visible under magnification), those of the outermost flowers of each umbellet usually somewhat enlarged, ovate (note that the sepals persist on the fruits); petals of the outermost flowers of each umbellet enlarged and spreading; fruits at maturity with the mericarps not or tardily separating ... 13. CORIANDRUM

Coriandrum
87.44. Sepals absent; outer flowers of the umbellets without enlarged sepals or petals, the petals all incurved or erect; fruits at maturity with the mericarps separating readily

88.45. Fruits 410 mm long, linear to narrowly oblong-elliptic in outline, not roughened; involucel of 46 bractlets, these mostly longer than the flower stalks but often shorter than the fruit stalks, usually fused together at the very base, elliptic-ovate to oblong-obovate ... 10. CHAEROPHYLLUM

Chaerophyllum
89.45. Fruits 1.53.0 mm long, oblong or ovate in outline, sometimes roughened with minute teeth or tubercles; involucel of 13 bractlets, these mostly shorter than the flower stalks, not fused, linear to narrowly lanceolate

90.46. Inflorescences axillary, sessile or minutely stalked; leaf blades with the ultimate divisions linear but not threadlike; fruits 23 mm long, oblong in outline, with noticeable, bluntly angled ribs, the surface smooth or sometimes roughened with minute teeth along the ribs, lacking tubercles ... 2. AMMOSELINUM

Ammoselinum
91.46. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, short- to more commonly long-stalked; leaf blades with the ultimate divisions narrowly linear, usually threadlike; fruits 1.52.0 mm long, ovate in outline, with inconspicuous, narrow, rounded ribs, the surface smooth or sometimes roughened with dense, minute tubercles, lacking teeth along the ribs ... 36. SPERMOLEPIS

Spermolepis
92.35. Leaves compound, the ultimate segments mostly broader (variously narrowly elliptic to broadly obovate), at least the larger leaves consisting of more or less well-differentiated leaflets, these entire to deeply lobed; fruits with the ribs winged or lacking wings

93.47. Leaflets all entire, not toothed along the margins (note that occasional leaflets may have 1 or 2 deep lobes, but no teeth) ... 37. TAENIDIA

Taenidia
94.47. Some or all of the leaflets incised or toothed along the margins

95.48. Involucre of numerous (more than 20) bracts, these sometimes inconspicuous

96.49. Involucre with the bracts 1 or 2 times pinnately dissected; rays numerous (more than 20); fruits 1.52.5 mm long, the ribs shallow and angled, lacking wings; petals white ... 1. AMMI

Ammi
97.49. Involucre with the bracts entire; rays 1220; fruits 47 mm long, the lateral and sometimes also the intermediate and dorsal ribs having narrow, corky wings; petals yellow to greenish yellow ... 23. LEVISTICUM

Levisticum
98.48. Involucre absent or of 112 bracts, these sometimes inconspicuous

99.50. Involucel absent

100.51. Sepals absent; petals yellow, occasionally tinged with red; fruits 57 mm long, flattened dorsally, the lateral ribs with thin, broad wings ... 30. PASTINACA

Pastinaca
101.51. Sepals minute triangular scales; petals white; fruits 1.04.5 mm long, flattened laterally, the ribs sometimes thick and corky, but lacking wings

102.52. Fruits 1.01.5 mm long, the ribs narrow, more or less rounded, not corky; plants with taproots; stems 30100 cm long, the base not thickened; rays 717 ... 6. APIUM

Apium
103.52. Fruits 2.04.5 mm long, the ribs blunt and somewhat corky; plants with at least some of the main roots tuberous-thickened; stems 50200 cm long, the base usually somewhat thickened; rays numerous ... 11. CICUTA

Cicuta
104.50. Involucel of 214 bractlets, these sometimes inconspicuous

105.53. Stems mottled or spotted with purple; involucre with the bracts often fused at the base ... 12. CONIUM

Conium
106.53. Stems green, rarely slightly purplish-tinged, lacking purple mottling or spots; involucre with the bracts free

107.54. Leaflets with the main lateral veins ending mostly in the sinuses between the teeth; stems usually somewhat thickened at the base ... 11. CICUTA

Cicuta
108.54. Leaflets with the main lateral veins ending mostly at the tips of the teeth or lobes; stems not noticeably thickened at the base

109.55. Leaf blades short-hairy on the upper and/or lower surfaces, sometimes hairy only along the margins or roughened with minute teeth along the main veins

110.56. Rays 16(8); petals white; fruits linear to narrowly oblong-lanceolate or narrowly oblong-oblanceolate in outline, flattened laterally, the ribs lacking wings; sepals absent

111.57.Rays 14; fruits 410 mm long; plants annual, with slender taproots ... 10. CHAEROPHYLLUM

Chaerophyllum
112.57.Rays 36(8); fruits 1024 mm long; plants perennial, with clusters of somewhat tuberous-thickened roots ... 28. OSMORHIZA

Osmorhiza
113.56. Rays 820; petals cream-colored to yellow; fruits oblong-elliptic to ovate in outline, flattened dorsally, the lateral and sometimes other ribs winged; sepals present or sometimes very small to absent in Thaspium

114.58.Leaf blades roughened with minute teeth on the undersurface along the veins, otherwise glabrous; fruits 511 mm long; plants with somewhat tuberous-thickened taproots ... 32. POLYTAENIA

Polytaenia
115.58.Leaf blades short-hairy along the margins and usually also the surfaces, not roughened along the veins; fruits 36 mm long; plants with clusters of fibrous roots, lacking taproots ... 38. THASPIUM

Thaspium
116.55. Leaf blades glabrous and smooth on the surfaces and margins

117.59. Sepals absent; rays 14(5); fruits linear to narrowly oblong-lanceolate in outline ... 10. CHAEROPHYLLUM

Chaerophyllum
118.59. Sepals minute triangular scales; rays (4)6 to numerous; fruits broadly oblong-elliptic to oblong, ovate or ovate-elliptic in outline (narrowly oblong in Falcaria, with mostly 1025 rays)

119.60.Stems ascending from spreading bases, rooting at the lower nodes; petioles and also often stems somewhat inflated ... 27. OENANTHE

Oenanthe
120.60.Stems erect or ascending, not rooting at the lower nodes; petioles and stems not inflated

121.61.Fruits narrowly oblong in outline; larger leaf blades with the main axis (rachis) usually winged below the attachment points of the leaflets ... 19. FALCARIA

Falcaria
122.61.Fruits broadly oblong-elliptic to ovate or ovate-elliptic in outline; leaf blades without winged tissue below the leaflets

123.62. Petals white; fruits 47 mm long; plants with expanded fibrous bases and taproots ... 24. LIGUSTICUM

Ligusticum
124.62. Petals yellow; fruits 24 mm long; plants with clusters of somewhat tuberous-thickened roots ... 41. ZIZIA
Zizia
 
 
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