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Published In: Genera Plantarum 143–144. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Institution: Department of Botany, University of Karachi.
General/Distribution: A family of 300 genera and nearly 2000 species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, represented in Pakistan by 6 native genera (with 6 species) and 13 cultivated genera (with 20 species).
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under PL-480. Thanks are also due to Mr. I. C. Hedge of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, for going through the manuscript.


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Trees, shrubs or twiners, sometimes herbs, with milky juice. Leaves opposite or whorled, rarely alternate or spiral, simple, entire, sometimes glandular on the entire midrib or at the base of the .midrib, stipulate or exstipulate. Inflorescence axillary or of terminal dichasial cymes or racemes. Flowers bisexual, regular, bracteate or apparently ebracteate. Calyx- (4-) 5 lobed, sometimes polysepalous, lobes equal or unequal, imbricate, often glandular inside at the base, corolla (4-) 5 lobed, hypogynous, rotate, salver-form or campanulate, valvate or twisted in bud; sometimes corona appendages present; stamens (4-) 5, usually inserted on the base of corolla tube, included or exserted; filament very short or absent; anther occasionally connivent with stigma; pollen sometimes in tetrads. Pistil one, basically composed of 2 carpels-free or syncarpous, terminating into single stigma, superior or subinferior, mostly unilocular or bilocular with parietal placentation, rarely bilocular with axile placentation, ovules one to many; style simple or divided at base, stigma large and of various types, mostly umbraculiform below and capitate or pentagonal above. Fruit a fleshy or dry drupe, berry, samara or follicles. Seeds 1 to many, pubescent, winged or apically comose.

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1.Corona present
2.Leaves spiral or alternate; anthers included
2.Leaves whorled or opposite; anthers ± exserted
3.Corona petaloid
3.Corona scale-like
1.Corona absent
4.Anthers connivent with stigma
5.Erect perennial herb or under-shrub; stigma 2-lobed, columnar or sub-globose
5.Erect or climbing shrub or tree; stigma not 2-lobed, columnar or fusiform
6.Flowers in various types of racemes
6.Flowers in terminal axillary cymes
7.Corolla campanulate or funnel-shaped; stigma fusiform
7.Corolla rotate or salver-form; stigma columnar
8.Corolla lobes deflexed; tube inflated in the centre; seeds beaked. (wild)
8.Corolla lobes obliquely truncate; tube inflated at the top; seeds not beaked.(cultivated)
4.Anthers not connivent with stigma
9.Fruit a berry-like drupe
10.Disc present
10.Disc absent
11.Calyx 5-lobed; stigma fusiform or columnar
11.Calyx polysepalous; stigma 2-lobed, pointed
9.Fruit a follicle, or capsule
12.Herb or under-shrub
13.Corolla salverform; flowers 1-3 in the leaf axils
13.Corolla infundibuliform; flower 1 in the leaf axils
12.Tree or large shrub
14.Seed winged
15.Calyx glandular outside, eglandular inside
15.Calyx eglandular on both sides
16.Corolla salverform. Fruit a follicle (Plants wild.)
16.Corolla campanulate or funnel-shaped. Fruit a capsule. (Plants cultivated)
14.Seed not winged
17.Leaves whorled; calyx eglandular inside
17.Leaves opposite; calyx glandular inside
18.Stamen inserted near the base of the tube; corolla throat contracted
18.Stamen inserted at or above the middle of the tube; corolla throat not contracted, inflated in the middle or top
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