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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/20/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/20/2013)
Family BIGNONIACEAE
Contributor ALWYN H. GENTRY
Description Woody trees, shrubs, or vines, rarely herbaceous; outer scales of axillary buds often pseudostipular and sometimes foliaceous; glandular fields often present between the petioles and rarely at the petiole apex. Leaves usually opposite, palmately or pinnately compound, sometimes simple, the terminal leaflet often replaced by a tendril. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, a panicle or raceme, sometimes reduced to a fascicle or a single flower. Flowers with the calyx syn- sepalous, usually more or less cupular, truncate to variously lobed or spathaceously split; corolla sympetalous with a conspicuous tube and 5 usually imbricate lobes; stamens inserted on corolla tube, didynamous, usually 4, rarely 2, a posterior staminode usually present, anthers with 1 or 2 thecae, these usually divergent or divaricate and held against the adaxial side of corolla tube, the filaments slender, ovary superior, 1 or 2 locular, the ovules numerous, attached to 4 vertical placen- tal ridges, these axile in 2-locular ovaries and parietal in unilocular ovaries (a single placental ridge in each locule in some species of Schlegelia), style slender, stigma bilamellate; a nectariferous disc usually conspicuous, sometimes lacking. Fruit a capsule with dehiscence perpendicular or parallel to the septum or a berry or hard-shelled pepo (calabash); seeds without endosperm, somewhat flattened, usually winged, the cotyledons foliaceous.
Habit trees, shrubs, or vines, rarely herb
Distribution A family of about 120 genera and 650 species, mostly tropical with a few genera- in warm temperate regions.
Note The family is divided into three major tribes and several minor ones. The Crescentieae and Tecomeae are found in both the Old and New Worlds. The Bignonieae sensu stricto are restricted to the New World. In Panama 35 genera and 75 species occur naturally, and an additional 7 genera and 11 species occur in cultivation. The family is predominantly woody and includes several genera of large trees and many lianas. Opposite, compound leaves characterize the great majority of species of the family. The bud scales, termed pseudostipules, are often conspicu- ous and provide useful taxonomic characters. Presence or absence of concen- trations of peltate glands into glandular fields at the nodes (interpetiolar glandu- lar fields) or, less commonly, at the apex of the petiole (petiolar glandular fields) is another taxonomically useful character. However, glandular fields disappear on older branchlets and in some species may be either present or absent, so the character must be used with caution. The flowers are variously pollinated by bees, birds, butterflies, moths, or bats. Seeds are mostly wind-dispersed, but some are dispersed by water or by mammals. The major economic importance of the family is in horticulture with many species widely cultivated for their showy flowers. A number of species of Tecomeae are important timber trees. The hard shells of the fruits of Crescentia are widely employed as household utensils.
Reference Bureau, E. & K. Schumann. Bignoniaceae. In C. F. P. von Martius, "Flora Brasiliensis." 8(2). 1896-97. Gentry, A. H. Bignoniaceae of OTS lowland study sites. In C. Schnell (edi- tor), "Handbook for Tropical Biology in Costa Rica." Pp. 26-16 (6 pp). San Jose. 1971.
Reference Gentry, A. Generic realignments in Central American Bignoniaceae. Brittonia 25: 226-242. 1973. Sandwith, N. Y. Bignoniaceae. In "Flora of Trinidad and Tobago." 2. Port of Spain. 1954.
Reference Seibert, R. J. Botany of the Maya Area: Miscellaneous papers XXI: The Bignoniaceae of the Maya Area. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 522: 375-434. 1940.
Key a. Herbaceous vines; inflorescence subspicate, the upper flowers mostly sterile; ovary 4-locular; capsule densely uncinate-spiny, bur-like, thd valves not splitting to the base ...... 40. Tourrettia aa. Woody lianas or trees; inflorescence never spicate, without sterile flowers; ovary 1-2- locular, capsule not spiny with uncinate barbs, or if spiny not bur-like and the 2 valves completely dehiscent. b. Trees or shrubs (Podranea and Tecomaria, both cultivated, are often vines); leaves various but not 2-foliolate and never tendrillate; stems without phloem arms in cross section; fruits dehiscing perpendicular to the septum or indehiscent and more than 7 cm long. c. Leaves pinnately compound. d. Leaves bipinnate, flowers purplish-blue; staminode longer than fertile stamens ...... 15. Jacaranda dd. Leaves once compound; flowers not bluish; staminode much shorter than fertile stamens. e. Shrubs, vines, or small trees; corolla small (less than 6 cm long and 2 cm wide), tubular-infundibuliform to tubular-campanulate; native or exotic species. f. Usually vines; flowers pink to lavender; calyx more than 1.0 cm long; cultivated ...... 29. Podranea ff. Usually trees or shrubs; flowers yellow to orange-red; calyx less than 0.8 cm long; cultivated or native. g. Stamens included; flowers yellow; native shrub or small tree ...... 38. Tecoma gg. Stamens exserted; flowers orange-red; exotic shrub or vine ....... 39. Tecomaria ee. Trees; corolla large (more than 7 cm long and 4 cm wide), broadly campanulate; exotic species. h. Calyx spathaceous; corolla red-orange; fruit a glabrous capsule ......  34. Spatahodea hh. Calyx cupular, irregularly 2-5-lobed; corolla yellow or brownish maroon; fruit indehiscent or a pubescent capsule. i. Corolla yellow, strongly pubescent; fruit dehiscent ......14. Haplophragma ii. Corolla brownish-maroon, glabrous; fruit indehiscent ...... 16. Kigelia cc. Leaves simple, 3-foliolate, or palmately compound. j. Leaves alternate, opposite, or fasciculate; corolla thick, usually with a trans- verse fold in throat, whitish or greenish; the flowers borne singly or in fascicles (bat pollination syndrome), fruit indehiscent, fibrous-fleshy, or pulpy with a hard shell. k. Leaves 3-foliolate, opposite; calyx spathaceously split (see also Den- drosicus spathicalyx); fruits without hard shell ...... 25. Parmentiera kk. Leaves mostly simple, alternate or fasciculate (if compound then fascicu- late in clusters); calyx not spathaceous (except in D. spathicalyx); fruits with hard shell (calabash). 1. Leaves alternate; placentation axile, at least at extreme base of ovary, above parietal on two placentae; seeds large (greater than 13 X 16 mm) ..... 11. Dendrosicus 11. Leaves fasciculate; placentation parietal on four placentae; seeds small (less than 8 X 6 mm) ...... 8. Crescentia jj. Leaves opposite; corolla thin, without transverse fold in throat, color various; inflorescence a raceme or panicle or reduced to a few flowers; fruit a dehiscent capsule. m. Flowers less than 1.8 cm long; anthers pilose; fruits spirally twisted; leaflets 7-9, often cuneate to the base ...... 13. Godmania mm. Flowers more than 2 cm long; anthers glabrous; fruits more or less straight; leaflets (1- )3-7, conspicuously petiolulate (unless 3-foliolate) ...... 36. Tabebuia bb. Lianas, sometimes shrubby when young (see also Podranea and Tecomaria); leaves various but often 2-foliolate and usually in part tendrillate; stems (except Schle- gelia) with 4-16 phloem arms in cross section; fruits dehiscing parallel to the sep- tum or indehiscent and less than 4 cm long. n. Leaves simple, tendrils lacking; placentation axile with a single central placenta in each locule, sometimes parietal with two bifid placentae toward top of ovary; fruit spherical, indehiscent ...... 32. Schlegelia nn. Leaves usually compound, tendrils often present; placentation axile with 2 pla- centae in each locule; fruit more or less elongate or flattened, dehiscent. o. Branchlets strongly 6-sided, the angles ribbed. p. Tendrils apically 3-forked; leaves with dendroid trichomes; calyx double; corolla conspicuously bilabiate, the upper 2 and lower 3 lobes fused at anthesis ...... 2. Amphilophium pp. Tendrils apically 3-15-forked; trichomes all simple; calyx simple; corolla slightly bilabiate, the lobes separate, subequal, reflexed at maturity ...... 27. Pithecoctenium oo. Branchlets terete to tetragonal, not 6-ribbed. q. Leaves 2-3-ternate; branchlets acutely tetragonal and the tendril trifid ...... 28. P leonotoma qq.Leaves 2-5-foliolate (sometimes simple in part); branchlets various, if acutely tetragonal the tendril simple. r. Corolla split about half its length, white; margins of capsule valves sharply raised; vegetative parts with odor of cloves ...... 41. Tynnanthus rr. Corolla only slightly bilabiate, color various; margins of capsule valves not sharply raised; without odor of cloves. s. Corolla orange, lobes valvate in bud; exotic ......30. Pyrostegia ss. Corolla not orange, lobes imbricate in bud; native or exotic. t. Branchlets conspicuously hollow; fruit narrow (less than 7 mm wide); leaves punctate ...... 35. Stizophyllum tt. Branchlets not hollow; fruit more than 8 mm wide; leaves not punctate. u. Tendrils uncinate-trifid with claw-like tips; flowers yellow; stem irregularly many-armed in cross section.  v. Calyx with a recurved apicule; capsule valves oblong, woody, splitting in half at maturity ...... 20. Melloa vv. Calyx apicule wanting or incurved; capsule valves linear, not woody, not splitting in half ...... 18. Macfadyena uu. Tendrils simple or trifid without claw-like tips; flowers lavender, white, or yellow; stem symmetrically 4-16-armed in cross section. w. Leaves + dendroid-pubescent, at least in vein axils beneath; capsule oblong, the valves woody, compressed, smooth, the seeds thin with broad wings. x. Interpetiolar glandular fields present; calyx small (less than 9 X 5 mm); corolla lavender; seed wings hyaline ...... 42. Xylophragma xx. Interpetiolar glandular fields absent; calyx large (greater than 22 X 22 mm); corolla yellow; seed wings brown ...... 5. Callichlamys ww.Leaf pubescence of simple trichomes or lepidote scales or wanting; capsule various but without above combina- tion of characters. y. Calyx with narrow, elongate (to 5 mm), twisted teeth; capsule oblong, conspicuously large tuberculate ...... 22. Onohualcoa yy. Calyx various but marginal teeth lacking or less than 1 mm long; capsule oblong or linear, not large- tuberculate. z. Anthers pubescent (see also Pachyptera kerere and Cuspidaria floribunda, these with curved anther thecae and obvious disc), the thecae straight; disc absent; capsule pubescent, the mid- rib and margins raised ...... 17. Lundia zz. Anthers mostly glabrous (pubescent in some species of Pachyptera and Cuspidaria); thecae straight or curved; disc present or absent; capsule glabrous or lepidote, if pubescent then evenly flattened. A. Flowers yellow, sometimes with reddish splotches (Mussatia), or white (see also Cydista aequinoctialis and Arrabidaea spp.); disc present; capsule valves more or less woody, more than 2.5 cm wide, not echinate. B. Twigs sharply tetragonal, the angles ribbed; corolla small, less than 2 cm long; calyx shallowly campanulate, less than 2 mm long ...... 21. Mussatia BB. Twigs subterete to subtetragonal, without conspicuous angles; corolla more than 2.5 cm long; calyx cupular, more than 5 mm long. C. Capsule stipitate, orbicular or elliptic; ovary usually stipitate; corolla glabrous (see also Tanaecium nocturnum with white flowers) or lepidote, cream or yellow, not white ...... 3. Anemopaegma CC. Capsule + oblong; ovary not stipitate; corolla pubescent outside (except Tanaecium nocturnum), cream, yellow or white. D. Leaves with petiolar glandular fields; pseudostipules vertically 3-seriate  ...... 23. Pachyptera DD. Leaves without petiolar glandular fields; pseudostipules not vertically 3-seriate. E. Tendril trifid. F. Capsule + flattened, wider than thick, basally rounded; interpetiolar glandular fields lacking ...... 12. Distictella FF. Capsule subtetragonal, basally gibbous; interpetiolar glandular fields present ...... 6. Ceratophytum EE. Tendril simple. G. Leaves with almond (cyanide) odor, never with cartilaginous margin; corolla elongate-tubular, salverform, white...... 37. Tanaecium GG. Leaves without almond odor, usually with at least traces of a cartilaginous margins; corolla tubular-campanulate or tubular- infundibuliform, yellow ...... 1. Adenocalymma AA. Flowers magenta to lavender (some species have white-flowered forms); disc present or absent; capsule valves not woody unless echinate, mostly less than 2.5 cm wide. H. Calyx spathaceous; surface of capsule valves gray, densely lepidote, appearing rough-crystalline under a lens ...... 26. Phryganocydia HH. Calyx not spathaceous; surface of capsule valves rarely gray, not rough-crystalline under a lens. I. Capsule suborbicular, echinate; pseudostipules clusters of cataphylls resembling miniature bromeliads, most conspicuous at base of inflorescence ...... 7. Clytostoma II. Capsule linear (rarely linear-oblong), not echinate (sometimes verrucose); pseudostipules not clusters of cataphylls, the inflorescence without cataphylls at base. J. Plant with strong onion odor (except P. parvifolia with disc-tipped tendrils); tendril trifid or ending in a peltate disc; mature capsule drying straw-colored or light brown, smooth, more than 1.7 cm wide, the margins not raised; petiolar and interpetiolar glandular fields often present ...... 23. Pachyptera JJ. Plant without onion odor; tendrils simple or trifid, never ending in a peltate disc; mature capsule usually drying blackish to brownish, verrucose to sandpaper-surfaced or smooth, less than 2 cm wide (except in Cydista aequinoctialis with raised margins), the margins raised or not; petiolar glandular fields only in Paragonia with simple or minutely bifid phylla) ...... 19. Martinella K. Tendril conspicuously trifid; fruit more than 55 cm long, uniformly flat, glabrous; inflorescence a raceme (see also Cydista heterophylla)KK. Tendril simple or minutely bifid; fruit less than 60 cm long,, compressed but with edges raised or sharply angled or the midline thicker, glabrous or pubescent inflorescence usually a panicle (a raceme in Cydista heterophylla). L. Calyx large (more than 18 mm long) and bilabiate; capsule verrucose ...... 33. Scobinaria LL. Calyx less than 9 mm long, usually more or less truncate; capsule not verrucose. M. Corolla glabrous outside; leaflets basally attenuate; pseudostipules foliaceous on terete branchlets; cultivated ...... 31. Saritaea MM. Corolla puberulous or lepidote outside at least on lobes; leaflets basally rounded to broadly cuneate; pseudostipules only foliaceous if early deciduous or on sharply tetragonal branchlets; native. N. Disc wanting; interpetiolar glands absent; stems with 8-16 phloem arms in cross section; branchlets some- times tetragonal ...... 10 Cydista NN. Disc present, obvious; interpetiolar glands often present; stems with 4 phloem arms in cross section; branchlets not tetragonal. 0. Leaflets elliptic, drying gray, with faint sweet odor when fresh; pseudostipules appressed-coni- cal; tendril usually minutely bifid; capsule valves convex, rough ...... 24. Paragonia 00. Leaflets ovate to elliptic or round, not drying gray, without sweet odor when fresh; pseudo- stipules inconspicuous or wanting; tendril simple; capsule valves not convex and rough-surfaced. P. Capsule valves with raised lines bordering a median furrow; anther thecae strongly re- flexed, pollen in tetrads ....... 9. Cuspidaria PP. Capsule valves uniformly flattened, or the median nerve and/or margins slightly raised; anther thecae straight or slightly bent, pollen grains single ...... 4. Arrabidaea
 
 
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