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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/14/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/14/2013)
Family CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Contributor W. G. D'ARCY
Description Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines, unarmed, mostly pubescent with short simple hairs and sometimes also with multangulate stellate hairs, mostly with short stalked glands which often dry reddish-brown, the plants sometimes sarmentose or with a perennial rhizome, the pith mostly large, hollow or solid, often soft. Leaves deciduous or evergreen, mostly opposite, sometimes ternate, and some of the leaves sometimes connate-perfoliate, entire or imparipinnately compound, some- times lobed, the leaves and leaflets mostly serrate or dentate, the teeth glandular- callose at the tips, pubescent or glaucous beneath, sometimes gland-bearing; stipules present or absent, often small or caducous or represented by an interpetiolar ridge; petiolules sometimes stipellate; bud scales present or absent. Inflorescences ter- minal or axillary, rarely solitary, mostly several- or many-flowered in panicles, cymes, or sessile verticels, in a number of genera the individual flowers ultimately arranged in pairs and sometimes the paired ovaries connate; bracts and braceoles usually present and sometimes connate in pairs, often glandular, sometimes ac- crescent in fruit. Flowers fragrant, bisexual or in a few species with larger neuter flowers at the periphery of the inflorescence, (3-)4-5(-6)-merous, regular or irregular; calyx-tube globose, campanulate, or tubular, adnate to the ovary and enveloping it in fruit, glabrous or pubescent, sometimes glandular or glaucous, the lobes mostly small and spreading but in a few genera accrescent and sub- foliaceous in fruit; corolla epigynous or perigynous, mostly 4-5 lobed, regular to strongly irregular and 2-lipped, 4 lobes forming the upper lip, ranging from rotate-campanulate to tubular and salverform, the lobes rounded apically, quin- cuncial or rarely valvate in bud, the tube sometimes gibbous, saccate or ventricose, often with 1-5 elongate nectaries within; stamens as many as the corolla lobes or in some genera reduced to 4 or 2, inserted equally or unequally but rarely didynamous on the corolla tube and alternate with the corolla lobes, the filaments glabrous or pubescent, unappendaged but variously thickened, straight or folded in bud, the anthers free, mostly dorsifixed and versatile, exserted or included, ellipsoid to linear, the thecae parallel, 2-4-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally or introrsely, sometimes extrorsely, the connective not thickened or protruding; ovary half or more inferior, sometimes connate with that of the adjacent flower, the locules 1-8, often asymmetrical with respect to the floral axis, the ovules 1-several
Habit Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines
Description per ovule, those in some locules regularly aborting, pendulous from the apex of the locule or rarely axile, anatropous, the style (including superior portion of the ovary) stout-conical to elongate and linear, the stigmas as many as the locules and more or less connate, unequal or equal, sometimes capitate and faintly lobed; a perigynous disc inconspicuous or absent. Fruit mostly a 1-several-seeded fleshy or juicy berry or drupe, rarely a longitudinally dehiscent capsule; seeds with a bony or coriaceous testa, rarely minute, the endosperm copious, fleshy, sometimes ruminate, rarely granular, the minute embryo straight, situated at one end of the seed.
Distribution A family of about a dozen genera with about 400 species, most in the two genera Lonicera and Viburnum. Most species in the family are in the north temperate zone and on tropical mountains, while the greatest number of genera have species in the regions flanking the mountains of Asia. Two genera are native to Panama, and another is known by one introduced species.
Note The type genus is Lonicera L. (Caprifolium Tourn.). Plants in the Caprifoliaceae are usually distinguishable by their opposite leaves, poorly developed stipules, perygynous 4-5-parted perianth, few or solitary pendulous ovules, and more or less united styles. The family may not be wholly natural, and a number of botanists have separated various genera into distinct families. Sometimes considered to have a close affinity with the Rubiaceae, at least some genera are very similar to the Araliaceae. Several species are grown in Panama as ornamentals, and one is used for medicinal purposes. Some species have edible berries. Various parts of many species are used in various regions of the world for medicinal purposes and some yield dyes. A number of species have edible fruits. From the viewpoint of toxicity, however, the Caprifoliaceae has a mixed reputa- tion, and cases of slight to lethal poisoning of stock and man have been attributed to plants of this family. In Panama, Sambucus canadensis var. laciniata is used ornamentally and medicinally.
Key a. Vines; flowers in many-flowered compound cymes; corollas distinctly 2-lipped, tubular- salverform, more than 2 cm long ...... 1. Lonicera aa. Shrubs or trees; flowers in 2-flowered dichasia; corollas regular, rotate-campanulate, less than 1 cm long. b. Leaves imparipinnate; fruits mostly 4-5-seeded ...... 2. Sambucus bb.Leaves simple; fruits 1-seeded ...... 3. Viburnum
 
 
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