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Published In: Genera Plantarum 64–65. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: J. RENZ
Contributor Institution: Basel, Switzerland.
General/Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Distributed in all climatic zones, except polar and extreme desert regions. Approx. 800 genera with 25,000-30,000 taxa. 47 species, all terrestrial, belonging to 26 genera, are represented in our area.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for financing this research under PL-480. Thanks are also due to the Directors of the various herbaria for providing all the facilities to the author.

 

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Plants with tuberoids or rhizomes, terrestrial or epiphytic, occasionally saprophytic. Leaves radical or cauline, sometimes reduced to sheaths. Inflorescence one to many-flowered. Flowers zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, usually reversed (resupinated) by torsion of ovary or pedicel. Perianth-segments in 2 whorls: the outer of 3 ± equal segments (sepals), the inner with 2 lateral equal (petals) and one unequal, medium (labellum). Labellum highly modified in shape and coloration, with or without a spur. Style and stamen ± fused to a column (gynostemium). Fertile anthers 1 or 2, the steriles transformed into staminodes near base of column. Fertile stigmas 2-3, usually confluent, a sterile modified into the rostellum, a tissue separating the anther from the fertile stigma. Pollinia 2, sometimes 2-4 parted, or 4, waxy or powdery-granulose, often attached by stalk-like caudicles to 1 or 2 viscid glands (viscidia), which can be free or enclosed in 2 or a single pouch (bursicula). Ovary inferior, sessile or pedicellate; placentation parietal, 1-locular, rarely 3-locular. Fruit a capsule, longitudinally dehiscing by 3 or 6 slits. Seeds tiny, numerous, without endosperm.
 

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1.Labellum slipper-shaped. Fertile anthers two
Cypripedium
1.Labellum not slipper-shaped. Fertile anther one
2.Plants saprophytic, leafless or autotrophic with rudimentary leaves. Stem with pale brown or greenish-sheaths
3.Sepals and petals fused, bell-shaped
Gastrodia
3.Sepals and petals free, ± spreading
4.Flowers not reversed; labellum facing upwards
Epipogium
4.Flowers reversed (resupinated); labellum facing downwards
5.Rhizome short, with cluster of fleshy roots Labellum green to dark olive-green
Neottia
5.Rhizome creeping and branched. Labellum whitish with red spots
6.Rhizome much coralloid-branched. Inflorescence up to 12-flowered. Flowers pendent, small; sepals c.5 mm long
Corallorrhiza
6.Rhizome thick, not much branched. Inflorescence 2-5(-8)-flowered. Flowers erect-spreading, large; sepals c. 25 mm long
Cymbidium
2.Plants autotrophic, with well-developed green leaves
7.Plants with palmate tuberoids
8.Spur saccate, much shorter than ovary, c. 2 mm long
Coeloglossum
8.Spur cylindric, ± as long as ovary, c.8-12 mm long
9.Viscid glands of pollinia enclosed in a pouch(bursicula)
Dactylorhiza
9.Viscid glands of pollinia without pouch
Gymnadenia
7.Plants with entire tuberoids, tuberous corms or rhizomes
10.Plants with entire tuberoids or tuberous corms
11.Labellum without spur, sometimes ± conically hollowed at base
12.Leaves solitary or few, spathulate or lanceolate to linear, contemporaneous with flowers on terminal inflorescence
Herminium
12.Leaf 1, petiolate, roundish, cordate at base, appearing after inflorescence-bearing stem scape
Nervilia
11.Labellum with l or 2 spurs
13.Flowers not reversed; labellum facing upwards with 2 spurs
Satyrium
13.Flowers reversed; labellum facing downwards with 1 spur
14.Stigma 2 on distinct processes
Habenaria
14.Stigma sessile, cushion-like, ± confluent
15.Flowers small, 2-3 mm in diameter. Spur 1 mm long. Anther-canals short. Staminodes filiform-elongate
Diphylax
15.Flowers large, 6-10 cm in diameter. Spur more than 8 mm long. Anther-canals ± elongated. Staminodes small, globose
Pecteilis
10.Plants with rhizomes
16.Labellum divided in hypochile and epichile
17.Ovary with short twisted pedicel; flowers ± pendulous
Epipactis
17.Ovary ± sessile; flowers erect
Cephalanthera
16.Labellum entire or lobed
18.Base of stem, thickened into leafy corm (pseudobulb)
19.Plants robust. Leaves 2-4, papery. Flowers showy, lilac or orange-red and white
Calanthe
19.Plants slender. Leaves 4-8, membranaceous. Flowers small, unpretentious, green or greenish-lilac
20.Flowers reversed; labellum facing downwards. Column slender, elongate, c. 5 mm
Liparis
20.Flowers not reversed; labellum facing upwards. Column very short, cylindric, c.0.5 mm
Malaxis
18.Base of stem not thickened
21.Roots fusiform-fleshy. Flowers spirally arranged in a single row on twisted axis
Spiranthes
21.Roots fibrous. Flowers on a straight axis, not spirally arranged
22.Rhizome elongated into irregularly shaped ovoid or oblong corm. Flowering stem(scape) separate from leaf-bearing stem, both arising from the corm
23.Pollinia 2. Leaves produced with (E.graminea) or after the flowers
Eulophia
23.Pollinia 4. Leaves produced with the flowers
Oreorchis
22.Rhizome not tuberous. Leaves and flowers on terminal inflorescence
24.Rhizome repent. Leaves ± radical, petiolate, reticulate-nerved. Flowers ± secund
Goodyera
24.Rhizome short, ascendent. Leaves cauline, not petiolate, parallel-nerved. Flowers on all sides
25.Leaves two, broad, subopposite in about the middle of the stem
Listera
25.Leaves numerous, linear-lanceolate, very much crowded
Zeuxine
 
 
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