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Published In: Systema orbis vegetabilium 35. 1830. (5-12 Jul 1830) (Syst. Orb. Veg.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Distribution: 10 genera and c. 250 species in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, Sumatra, Java, C. America and W. Indies. Represented in Pakistan by 4 genera and 9 species, 2 are adventive.


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Monoecious resiniferous trees with needle‑shaped or scale leaves spirally arranged. Male cones with scale‑like bracts at base; scales numerous with 2 microsporangia per scale. Female cones enlarged and woody at maturity with many spirally disposed bract scales. Fruit a woody cone.

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1 Mature leaves borne on long shoots, solitary; short shoots absent. (2)
+ Mature leaves borne on short or long shoots in whorls or fascicles. (3)
2 (1) Leaves linear flattened in cross section, not borne on peg like projections. Cones erect. Sporangia opening by transverse slits. Abies
+ Leaves needle like, quadrangular in cross section, borne on peg like projections. Cones pendulous. Sporangia opening by longitudinal slits. Picea
3 (1) Leaves short, needle like, spiral on long shoots; fascicled on dwarf ones. Cones erect, only scales falling of at maturity. Male cones solitary on dwarf branches. Cedrus
+ Leaves scale like on long shoots; short shoots with long acicular leaves. Male cones clustered at the base of young dwarf shoots. Pinus
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