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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/20/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 8/20/2013)
Genus Cephaelis Swartz
PlaceOfPublication Prodr. 3: 45. 1788. Nomen conserv.
Note TYPE: C. muscosa (Jacq-.) Swartz type cons.
Synonym Carapichea Aubl., Hist. P1. Guiane 1: 167. 1775. Nomen rejic. TYPE: C. guianensis Aubl. Tapogomea Aubl., Hist. P1. Guiane 1: 367. 1775. Nomen rejic. TYPE: T. violacea Aubl. Evea Aubl., Hist. P1. Guiane 1: 103. 1775. Nomen rejic. TYPE: E. guianensis Aubl. Ipecacuanha Arruda, Diss. P1. Brazil 44. 1810. TYPE: I. officinalis Arruda.
Description Shrubs, trees, or occasionally woody herbs. Leaves often glabrous and with many lateral veins; stipules free or connate, frequently persistent. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, capitate, the head often branched, subtended by an involucre of bracts, the bracts often large, often highly colored, free or connate, becoming smaller and more concave adaxially. Flowers usually sessile; hypanthium short, the calycine cup short, truncate or dentate, often irregularly so, the teeth (4-)5 (-7); corolla usually white, the indumentum variable, the tube funnelform or salverform, usually expanded basally, the lobes usually 5, valvate in bud; ovary 2-celled, the septum thick, a single ovule in each locule arising from the base of the ovary. Fruits fleshy, the 2 pyrenes smooth or costate, the endocarp usually sulcate on the inner face.
Habit Shrubs, trees, or occasionally woody herbs
Distribution occurs throughout the tropics of the New and Old Worlds.
Note It has about 200 species. I have elected to separate Cephaelis from Psychotria although there are reasons for reducing the former to the synonomy of the latter, as J. Steyermark maintains. In Panama most of the species have capituliform inflores- cences with large colored bracts which allow for easy allocation to Cephaelis. Standley & Williams in the Flora of Guatemala (1975) sum up the traditional stand: ". . . for practical purposes . . . it constitutes a most convenient segre- gate. "
Key a. Inflorescences spiciform cylindrical, the rachis 5-12 cm long ...... 7. C. dimorphandrioides aa. Inflorescences mostly rounded capitate, not spiciform cylindrical, the rachis or flowering capitulum less than 5 cm long. b. Inflorescence terminal. c. Heads of flowers subtended by 2 large flaring or mottled bracts obviously distinct in color and texture from the innermost bracts; outer bracts 2-5 cm long. d. Heads with the outermost bracts not mottled, uniformly red, occasionally orange or yellow, rarely white. e. Plants densely hairy; heads on erect peduncles ...... 20. C. tomentosa ee. Plants glabrate; heads on nodding or erect peduncles. f. Peduncles nodding; leaves to 29 cm long, papyraceous ...... 4. C. correae ff. Peduncles erect, the largest leaves to 15 cm long, coriaceous ...... 10. C. elata dd. Heads with outermost bracts obviously mottled, of various colors ...... 21. C. vultusmimi cc. Heads of flowers with outermost bracts more or less similar in texture and color to those within, less than 2 cm long. g. Heads of flowers disposed as a rotund capitate or subglobose mass. h. Subshrubs less than 1 m tall; mass of flowers 3-5 cm wide; petioles 4-7 cm long. i. Peduncle ca. 4 cm long ...... 17. C. nana ii. Peduncle 0.7-2.0 cm long ...... 8. C. discolor hh. Subshrubs ca. 2 m tall; mass of flowers to 2.5 cm wide; petioles 0.3-1.5 cm long ...... 12. C. glomerulata gg. Heads of flowers oblong or elliptical, not disposed as a rotund capitate or rotund mass. j. Heads ca. 0.5 cm long ...... 15. C. kennedyi jj. Heads more than 0.5 cm long. k. Leaves with 2 submarginal veins paralleling the margin; stem rhizophorous ...... 13. C. insueta kk. Leaves with 1 vein or no vein paralleling the margin; stem not rhizophorous. 1. Leaves drying red or brown beneath, the lateral veins (20-)30-38. m. Petioles absent. n. Anthers to 2.2 mm long ...... 9. C. dressleri nn. Anthers 2.5-3.0 mm long ...... 19. C. panchocoensis mm. Petioles of largest leaves ca. 4 cm long ...... 2. C . bristanii 11. Leaves not drying red or brown beneath (except C. dressleri), the lateral veins 12-25. o. Peduncle present. p. Peduncle terminated by 2 large bracts and 3 branches, each branch terminated by a ca- pitulum of flowers; lateral veins ca. 12 ...... 6. C. dichroa pp. Peduncle and general inflorescence not as above; lateral veins 13-25. q. Leaves sessile or subsessile, auriculate at the base; stipules 2.0-2.8 cm long. r. Bracts glanduliferous within, the glands diffuse or disposed in series; corolla 10-14 mm long ...... 9. C. dressleri rr. Bracts not glanduliferous within; corolla ca. 30 mm long ...... 19. C. panchocoensis qq. Leaves with distinct petioles 0.3-1.5 cm long; stipules to 0.3 cm long. s. Inflorescence with heads 1.5-3.0 cm wide; calycine teeth to 1.2 mm long, equal; corolla tube ca. 10 mm long ...... 2. C. glomerulata ss. Inflorescence with heads to 0.5 cm long; calycine teeth absent or dis- posed as mere points or obviously unequal, to 0.3 mm long; corolla tube to 3.2 mm long ...... 15. C. kennedyi oo. Peduncle absent ...... 18. C. panamensis bb. Inflorescence axillary. t. Leaves with lateral veins 6-12. u. Stipules membranous with conspicuous marginal subulate fimbriae; plants rhizomatous ...... 14. C. ipecacuanha uu. Stipules subcoriaceous or chartaceous without marginal fimbriae; plants not rhizomatous. v. Leaves succulent, the lateral veins evanescent; stipules to 1 cm long; inflorescences with peduncle to 1 cm ...... 11. C. gaugeri vv. Leaves not succulent, the lateral veins conspicuous; stipules to 7 mm long; inflorescences with peduncle absent. w. Leaves 1.6-5.0 cm wide; inflorescences 1.0-1.5 cm wide ...... 1. C. axillaris ww. Leaves 7-9 cm wide; inflorescences ca. 2 cm wide ...... 16. C. latistipulata tt. Leaves with lateral veins 15-38. x. Stipules more than 1 cm long; inflorescences with heads 1.5-2.2 cm wide. y. Leaves with lateral veins evanescent; blades succulent ...... 3. C. camponutans yy. Leaves with lateral veins obvious; blades not succulent ...... 5. C. croatii xx. Stipules less than 1 cm long; inflorescences with heads ca. 1 cm wide ...... 2. C. bristanii
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