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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per.: Sept.-Aug., but earlier in the south.
Type: Type locality: E. India.
Distribution: Distribution: S. Asia, India and Pakistan.
Comment/Acknowledgements: A common tropical herb, sometimes weedy, found in the plains and the foothills up to 2200 m. A very variable species in form and size. B. coccinea Miller (see R.R. Stewart, l.c.) is not found in Pakistan and is a native of America.

The anthocarp is typically turbinate to broadly clavate, but I have observed in a few specimens where the shape is subfusiform. As suggested by F.R. Fosberg, these may be immature fruits (Fig. 1, I). The species is considered as a fodder for sheep. The roots are said to be medicinal and used as a purgative, febrifuge and an anthelmintic. The juice extract from the plant is used as a diuretic. The leaves can be used as a pot herb.

Illustration: Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb. (Illustration)
Map Location: B-6 Dir: Khal, R.R. Stewart, E. Nasir & M.A. Siddiqi 1429 (RAW); Timargarh, Sultan 7787 (KUH); 31 miles from Dir, on way to Rabat, Sultan 8205 (KUH); B-7 Swat: Madian, c. 1600 m, R.R. Stewart 24484 (RAW); Marghuzar, Sultanul Abedin 8513 (KUH); Pir Baba-Saidu Sharif, 16th mile, Sultanul Abedin 8349 (KUH); Saidu Sharif, Mushtaq 524 (PPFI-B); Malakand Div.: Chakdara, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 6419 (KUH); Mardan Dist.: Ambella Pass, Y. Nasir & Zaffar Ali 5539 (RAW); Yar Hussain, Farrukh Hussain 126 (RAW); Hazara Dist.: 4 miles from Balakot, on way to Kaghan, Sultanul Abedin & M. Qaiser 8697 (KUH); Balakot, 1970, Bashir Khan s.n.(PPFI-B); near Haripur, M.A. Siddiqi & Y. Nasir 7318 (RAW); id., A. Majid 1114; 1236 (PPFI-M) Nathia Gali-Abbottabad rd., S.A. Faruqi & M. Qaiser 3448(KUH); Abbottabad, 16.5.61, Y.M. Khan s.n. (PPFI-B); Kangar, Berarkot-Muzaffarabad, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 4871 (KUH); Rawalpindi-Abbottabad, 60th mile, Sultan & Qaiser 8617 (KUH); Kashmir: Domel-Garhi Habibullah, R.R. Stewart 13282 (RAW); Jhelum vy. road, c. 3000 ft., R.R. Stewart 6080 (RAW); Chitrian, Chenari, Kazmi 1373 (KUH); Dirkot, M.B. Zaman 2818 (PPFI-M); Peshawar Dist.: C-6 Univ. Campus, M. Qaiser & Sultanul Abedin 5788 (KUH); Peshawar, April 1907, Deane s.n. (K); Dara Adam Khel, Peshawar-Kohat, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 1643 (KUH); Kachagari, Peshawar-Kabul, Sultanul Abedin & M. Qaiser 8533 (KUH); 40th mile, Peshawar-Rawalpindi, Sultanul Abedin 8556 (KUH); Kohat Dist.: Ibrahim Zai, near Hangu, M.A. Siddiqi & Y. Nasir 6533 (RAW); N. Waziristan: 14 miles from Khajuri, Miramshah rd., M. Qaiser & Sultanul Abedin 6155 (KUH); Kurram: Makai, near Parachinar, c. 7500 ft., M.A. Siddiqi & Y. Nasir 4354 (RAW); Attock Dist.: Lala Rukh Tomb, Hasanabdal Sultanul Abedin 2745 (KUH); Wah Garden, Sultanul Abedin 2675 (KUH); C-7 Rawalpindi Dist.: hills above Islamabad, Y. Nasir 6836 (RAW); Kahuta, M. Nath 19351 (RAW); Rawalpindi, R.R. Stewart 7055; 15098 (RAW); id., J. Singh 33 (RAW); Karor, M.A. Siddiqi & Y. Nasir 6090 (RAW); 16th mile, Rawalpindi-Kahuta, Sultanul Abdein & M. Qaiser 8585 (KUH); Sinto village, 21-12-64, A.R. Beg s.n. (PPFI-B); Panjar, c. 2400 ft., R.R. Stewart 28641 (RAW); Ayub Park, Sultanul Abedin 7401 (KUH); Gordon College, Rawalpindi, Y. Nasir 7025 (RAW); Campbellpur Dist.: 6th mile, Talagang-Chakwal, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 4532 (KUH); Jhelum Dist.: Langarpur, R.R. & I.D. Stewart 541 (RAW); Choa Saidanshah, E. & Y. Nasir 7316 (RAW); near Sarai Alamgir, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 2107 (KUH); C-8 Sialkot Dist.: Canal Bank, Mirala Barrage, Y. Nasir & E. Robson 7455 (RAW); Baluchistan: D-4 Quetta Dist.: Ranikot, 7.5.1967, M.G. Koniezuv s.n. (KUH); Quetta-Sibi, S. A. Faruqi & M. Qaiser 2256 (KUH) ; D-5 Loralai Dist.: c. 3 miles from Rakhni, on way to D.G. Khan, M. Qaiser 2546 (KUH); D.G. Khan Dist.: 21st. mile, on way to Ft. Munro, Sultanul Abedin & Abrar Hussain 9637 (KUH); D-6 Mianwali Dist.: 15th mile, Kalabagh-Isakhel, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 6299 (KUH); D.I. Khan Dist.: Daraban-Darazinda rd., Y. Nasir 4674 (RAW); Marda Khel, Mianwali, Sultanul Abedin & M. Qaiser 9303 (KUH); Multan Dist.: Pattoki-Multan, M. Qaiser 3565 (KUH); Pirawala, Shariq 7300(PPFI-M). Khushalgarh-Kohat, 10th mile, Sultanul Abedin & M. Qaiser 9288 (KUH); Niazbeg, Multan rd., Sultanul Abedin 2383 (KUH); Sind, Hyderabad Dist.: Bholari Camp, M. Ahmed 63 (RAW); Tajpur-Nasarpur, A. Jalis 355; 362 (RAW); 15th mile, Jamshora.-Sehwan, S.A. Faruqi & M. Qaiser 2182 (KUH); Tandojam, near railway track, A. Jalis 319 (RAW); S. Makran: F-2 Turbat, near Rest House, S.I. Ali et al. 809 (KUH); Teejahban, Turbat, Sultanul Abedin & Abrar Hussain 6043 (KUH); c. 5 miles from Mand, on way to Turbat, S.I. Ali et al. 796 (KUH); Gaish Khan-Hoshab 20th mile, Sultanul Abedin & Abrar Hussain 5991 (KUH); F-4 c. 10 miles from Wudd, on way to Khuzd, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 1183 (KUH); G-6 Nagar Parkar, in dry stream bed, S.I. Ali 1509 (KUH); Rajput Nagar, Sultanul Abedin 3490 (KUH); Karachi Dist.: Karachi Univ., 18. viii. 67, A. Hussain s.n. (KUH); garden near Bela, Sultanul Abedin & M. Qaiser 7502 (KUH); Hub-Somniani, S.I. Ali & Sultanul Abedin 1285, p.p. (KUH); Hub-Bela, Sultanul Abedin 3699 (KUH); Manghopir rd., 29-1-1959, T.R. Naqi. s.n. (KUH); Mangohpir, 29. viii. 59, S.M. Naqvi s.n. (KUH); id., Jafri 1332 (KUH); Clifton, 26. vii. 59, I.I. Chaudri s.n. (KUH) Federal area, Karachi, 8. i. 59, M. Tasnif s.n. (KUH); Nazimabad, 1958, M. Hussain s.n. (KUH); Manghopir-Hub Dam, 21st mile, Sultanul Abedin 5156 (KUH).


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A perennial diffuse straggling, puberulous herb. Stem woody below, branches often reddish. Leaves opposite and unequal, ovate, oblong to subcordate, 1-5 x 0.3-3.8 cm, sinuate to repand, cuspidate or obtuse, puberulous, often whitish on undersurface. Bract and bracteoles 1.5-2 mm long, ovate, acuminate, puberulous, margin membranous. Flowers c. 3 mm long, in diffuse axillary panicles. Perianth campanulate, pinkish-mauve, as long as or longer than the lower half, deciduous. Stamens 2-3, exserted. Filaments slender, rosy, arising in the axil of a scale. Ovary less than 1 mm long, ovoid; style c. 1.5 mm long, stigma capitate. Anthocarp turbinate to broadly clavate, 3 mm long, 5 ribbed, glandular and papillose.
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