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Published In: Methodus Plantarum 24. 1754. (Meth. Pl.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Synonym Text: Polygonum sect. Bistorta (Adans.) D. Don, Fl. Nepal. 69. 1825; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 31. 1886; Kom., Fl. URSS 5: 672. 1936; Schiman-Czeika & Rech. f. in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 56: 62. 1968; Bhopal & Chaudhri in Pak. Syst. 1: 79. 1977; Polygonum L. sect. Persicaria subsect. Bistorta (Adans.) Benth. & Hook. Gen. Pl. 3: 98. 1880.
General/Distribution: A genus with c. 50 species, distributed in North America, Europe and Asia. Represented in Pakistan by 7 or 8 species.


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Perennial rhizomatous herbs, ± shrubby at the base with thick root stocks, stem simple or branched, branches erect or prostrate with erect leafy scapes. Leaves broad or narrow, usually with narrow revolute margin, sometimes ± undulate or crisp-crenate; ochrea tubular, thin, membranous, brownish, without cilia. Inflorescence spiciform racemes, spikes compact, uninterrupted, eglandular. Bract scarious, oval or lanceolate thin, membranaceous, open, neither tubular nor truncate, never ciliate. Perianth 4-5-parted, not enlarged in fruit. Stamens (4-) 5-8 (-10). Ovary usually trigonous; styles 2-3, long, free or connate at the base; stigma simple, very small. Nuts trigonous or biconvex.

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1 Leaf base of lower leaves not cordate. Upper leaves not amplexicaul. (2)
+ Leaf base of lower leaves broadly cordate, upper leaves amplexicaul. 2 Bistorta amplexicaulis
2 (1) Trailing or creeping plants with wiry stoloniferous stems. (3)
+ Erect to suberect herbs with relatively stout or underground rhizome. (4)
3 (2) Leaves ovate-elliptic 1-2 cm long; ochreae 1 cm long.
+ Leaves grass like, linear to lanceolate, 5-13 cm long; ochreae 1.5-2.5 cm long. 3 Bistorta emodi
4 (2) Peiole of lower leaves not winged. (5)
+ Petiole of lower leaves distinctly winged. 7 Bistorta major
5 (4) Plants 10-100 cm tall. Flowers many in dense, long raceme. (6)
+ Plants very dwarf < 5 cm tall. Flowers few in head-like raceme. 6 Bistorta perpusilla
6 (5) Stem densely tufted, leaf margin crenulate. Lower part of spike without bulbils. 1 Bistorta affinis
+ Stem simple, leaf margin ± revolute, lower part of the spike often bear bulbils. 5 Bistorta vivipara

Lower Taxa
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