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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/3/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 7/3/2013)
Species Caryocar nuciferum L.
PlaceOfPublication Mant. P1. 2: 247. 1771.
Note TYPE: Guyana, Allemand
Synonym Pekea tuberculosa Aubl., Hist. P1. Guiane 1: 537. 1775, pro parte quoad fruct. tantum. Rhizobolus tuberculosus (Aubl.) Gmel. in L., Syst. Nat., ed. 13, 2(1): 840. 1789, pro parte. Rhizobolus pekea Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. P1. 2: 92, tab. 98. 1790, pro parte, nom. illeg. Caryocar tomentosum Willd., Sp. P1., ed. 4, 2: 1244. 1799, pro parte, nom. illeg. Amagdala guayanensis Clusius, Exoticorum 27, tab. 1. 1605, nom. illeg.
Description Large trees to 45 m tall; young branches glabrous. Leaves trifoliolate; petioles 4-20 cm long, terete to flattened, glabrous; leaflets petiolulate, the terminal petiolule 7-25 mm long, the lateral petiolules about equal to the! center one, the petiolules glabrous, terete or shallowly canaliculate; blades elliptic, apically acu- minate, the acumen 5-15 mm long, the margins entire to weakly crenate, basally rounded to subcuneate, glabrous on both surfaces, the terminal blade 12-34 cm long, 6-18 cm broad, the lateral blades equal or slightly smaller than the terminal one, the primary veins 8-18 pairs, plane above, prominent beneath, the venation prominulous beneath; stipels absent. Inflorescences clustered racemes; peduncles 6-10 cm long, glabrous, sparsely lenticellate towards the base; rachis 1-4.5 cm long, glabrous; flowering pedicels 4-6 cm long, 5-8 cm thick, glabrous, ebracte- olate. Flowers with the calyx campanulate, ca. 2 cm long, glabrous on the ex- terior, the lobes 5, rounded; corolla ca. 6-7 cm long, elliptic, glabrous, deep red on the exterior, paler within; stamens extremely numerous, over 700, the filaments caducous as a unit, basally united to 2 mm and then dividing into fused groups before becoming free above, the outer ones 7-8.5 cm long including the base, yel- low, the distal portion tuberculate, many shorter inner filaments present from 3.5 cm long and of all intermediate sizes, the inner filaments only apically tuber- culate, the anthers small; ovary globose, 4-locular, glabrous on the exterior, the styles 4, filamentous, 8-9 cm long, glabrous. Fruits subglobose to sublobate, to 15 cm long, the exocarp glabrous, lenticellate, the pericarp very thick and fleshy, detaching from the mesocarp and endocarp, the mesocarp and endocarp envelop- ing the seed to form a large stone ca. 7 cm broad, 5 cm long, the mesocarp be- coming lignified and hard, the exterior undulate with short rounded tubercles, the endocarp with a tuberculate exterior and a hard thin woody interior ca. 1 mm thick; only 1-2 subreniform seeds developing.
Habit trees
Note The material cited below is sterile and is with some hesitation assigned to C. nuciferum, a species otherwise confined to the Guianas. Only fertile material will show whether this is the same species. However, similar distribution pat- terns between the Guianas and the uplands of Panama occur in other groups. The leaves and the young stem are a good match with C. nuciferum. C. nuciferum is--grown in the Guianas and Caribbean where the edible fruit is sold in the markets as the Souari nut.
Specimen DARIEN: Extreme summit of Cerro Pirre, 1000-1400 m, Gentry 7023 (MO, NY).
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