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Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 20: 136. 1846. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Synonym Text: C. cinnamomea Boott in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 20: 136. 1851. C. griffithii Boott, l.c. 20: 138. 1851. C. oliveri Boeck. in Flora 63: 455. 1880;. C. gilesii Nelmes in Kew Bull.: 306. 1939. C. luteo-brunnea Nelmes, l.c.: 308. 1939. C. lepus-aestatis T. Koyama in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 16: 167. 1956.
Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per.: September.
Type: Type: India, Uttar Pradesh, ”supra Dhunrao, versus fauces Montium Mana dictas, ad altitudinem 16000 ped.”, M.P. Edgeworth (K!).
Habitat: Meadows and rocky areas above treeline to c. 5000 m.
Comment/Acknowledgements: The Carex nivalis complex is here treated collectively. Small characters used for distinguishing species within the complex are variable and not found to be correlated. For example, the terminal spike may be entirely male, gynecandrous or of mixed sexes. Shape, size and colour of utricles and glumes, as well as their relative length, are also variable. Egorova [in A. I. Vvedensky (ed.), Conspectus Florae Asiae Mediae 5: 6-98, 1976], however, accepts in USSR C. griffithii and C. nivalis as separate taxa, which may indicate that some of characters are regionally restricted; in addition, Egorova described a new species in the complex, C. tianschanica. At present recognition of subspecific or variatal taxa is considered premature. It should also be noted that the species occurs at very high altitudes and most specimens seen were immature.
Map Location: A-6 Oihor Gol, Sarum, 11000’, Bowes Lyon 821 (W); Barum Gol, Och Anzog, 3500 m, Weldelbo s.n. (K); Barum Gol, 3300 m, Wendelbo s.n. (K); Chitral: Rosh Gol, NE Tirich Mir, Stainton 2830 (RAW); A-7 Khot Au, 13000’, Stainton 2841 (RAW); Owir Pass, 4000 m, Behm 58 (K); Naltar Lakes, 12000’, Stewart 26922b (K); 26928 (K, RAW); 26929 (K); Naltar Valley, 11000’, Stewart 26930 (RAW); 26935 (K, RAW); Yasin – Darkot, 12700’, Bowes-Lyon 8127 (K); Naz Bar (Yasin), 4500 m, Miehe 3044 (H); 4400 m, Miehe 3099 (H); 4390 m, Miehe 3103 (H); 4330-4550 m, Miehe 3152 (H); 4140-4190 m, Miehe 3237 (H); 4090 m, Miehe 3262 (H); 3930 m, Miehe 3367 (H); 4100-4200 m, Miehe 3557 (H); Shah Jinali Pass, 14000’, Stainton 3043 (RAW);?Tui Pass, 12-14000’, Giles 475 (K); Thui Region, 200 km NW Gilgit, 4365 m, Broadhead 33 (E); Ishkuman Aghost, 4210-4540 m, Schmid 2428 (RAW); Jutial Nullah, Stewart 26924 (K, RAW); A-8 Baghrot Valley, 4480 m, Miehe 3695 (H); 4270 m, Miehe 3709 (H); Between Gulmit and Atabad/upper Hunza, 4300 m, Miehe 2906 (H); Gharesa Glacier, 15580 ft, Polunin 6145 (E). B-7 Swat: Sho Nala, 9-10000 ft, Stewart & Rahman 25203a (RAW); Batani, Ushu distr., 9000’, Stewart & A. Rahman 25721 (K, RAW); 25722 (K, W); Above Batani, Ushu Distr., 9-10000 ’, Stewart & A. Rahman 25357 (K, RAW); 25291 (K); Kaghan Valley, Nila, Inayat in Duthie 22641 (K); Kaghan Valley, Sarul, Inayat in Duthie 22641a (K); Kaghan Valley, Inayat in Duthie 23261 (K) Kaghan Valley, Khavu, Inayat in Duthie 23262 (K); Kaghan, Rayibhoyi, Duthie s.s. (K); Kaghan Valley, Gittidas, Metz 179 (K); 180 (K); Upper Kaghan Valley around Saiphul Muluk and Battakundi, 3900-4000 m, Miehe 359 (H); Kaghan Valley, Above Saiful Muluk-Lake, 4060 m, Schickhoff 818 (H, immature); 4070 m, Schickhoff 792 (H); Kaghan Valley, Babusar Pass, SE, alpine meadow, 4200 m, Schickhoff 921 (H). Qasi Nag, Karna, Mohd s.n. (K); Hazara: Joba, Inayat in Duthie 23264 (K); Siran Range, Khanda, Inayat in Duthie 23260 (K); Kaghan Valley, Inayat in Duthie 20273 (K); Distribution.: From Tian Shan Mts. to Afghanistan and eastwards to Nepal; B-8 Above Hushe, 4350 m, Miehe 2012 (H); Baltistan, Biafo, Mango, 3800 m, Hartmann 257 (RAW); Lidder Valley, Bazalkod Nala, Duthie 13392 (K); Lidder Valley, Duthie 13393 (K); Gulmarg, Aitchison 114 (K); Sind Valley, Sonamarg, 12500’, Stewart 9850 (K); 1200’, Stewart 9905 (K); Sonamarg region, 12000’ Stewart 97 (K); Tulion near Pahlgam, 13000’, Stewart 8152 (K); Mt. Kolahoi, 16000’, Stewart 9421 (K); Kolohoi Pass, 14400 ft, Polunin 56/559 (E); Astor, Rama Valley, 3660 m, Lankester & Pearson 1413 (BM); Zanskar, Thomson s.n. (K); Burzil Pass, 14000’, Stewart 22067 (K); Shinghai Gah to Pahot Gali, 4430-4470 m, Miehe 971 (H); 4190-4280 m, Miehe 1236 (H); 4150-1490 m, Miehe 1257 (H); 4150 m, Miehe 1287 (H); 4200 m, Miehe 1623 (H); Kashmir: Satpura Nullah, 14000 ft, Stewart 20299 (RAW); Deosai, Osmaston 6 S (K); 4020 m, Meinertzhagen s.n. (BM); Thalle La, 15000-16000 ft, Stewart 20747 (RAW); 20748 p.p. (RAW); Jacquemont 1885 (K); Karakorum, Clarke 30235; 14000’, Clarke 30244 (K); 13000’, Clarke 30439 (K); Ladakh, Thomson s.n. (K); B-9 Gilgit Road, Kamri Pass, 13000’, Stewart 18861 (K); C-6 Kurram: Biankhel, Aitchison 1242 (K).


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Tufted perennial, 30-60(-80) cm. Stem erect or base ascending, sharply trigonous, smooth, papillose, grey-green. Leaves c. 1/2 of stem length; sheaths 30-50 mm, wide and conspicuous, grey or yellowish-brown, sometimes reddish, margin of scarious side concave; ligule to 0.7 mm, arch shallow; blades 3-9 mm wide, flat, margins recurved, long acuminate, grey-green, both sides papillose near scabrous apex. Inflorescence sometimes of 1-2 male or to several gynecandrous spikes above, sometimes male and female flowers mixed in spikes, 2-4(-6) female spikes below, imbricate, long-pedunculate, lowest remote, drooping. Bracts shorter than their spike, with sheath to 40 mm. Male spikes 12-22 x 4-6 mm, closely imbricate; male glumes c. 4.5 x 1 mm, narrowly oblong to oblanceolate, acute or with mucro to 0.4 mm, dark reddish brown. Female spikes 20-50 x 4-8 mm, club-shaped; female glumes 3-5.6 mm, c. equalling utricle, narrowly oblong or ovate, acute or barbed arista to 1.3 mm, from dark reddish brown or almost black and with or without narrow scarious margin to light brown and with wide scarious margins; utricles 3-5.5 x 1.3-2.9 mm, ellipsoid to globose, flat, smooth or few bristles on lateral nerves, from dark reddish brown or almost black to light brown with wide colourless areas, beak 0.3-1 mm, cylindrical, truncate or oblique, smooth or with some barbs, as usually scarious. Stigmas 3. Nut 1.5-2.2 x 0.8-1.2 mm, incl. a to 0.3 mm style base, obovoid, trigonous, yellowish, very finely reticulate and papillose.
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