寒藓科 han xian ke
by Li Xing-jiang and Si He
Plants small to rather robust, green or yellowish green, in dense tufts. Stems erect, with innovated branches below gametophores, radiculose throughout or only near the base; central strand differentiated. Leaves usually in 3–8 ranks, erect-patent or squarrose, oblong-ovate or lanceolate; margins not bordered; serrulate near apex, rarely serrulate throughout; costae single, strong, ending below the apex, in cross section with a ventral stereid band; leaf cells rounded, quadrate or hexagonal, thick-walled, smooth or mammillose; basal cells narrowly rectangular, hyaline, thin-walled. Autoicous or dioicous. Setae elongate, straight; capsules erect, long-pyriform, curved, mouth oblique, small; neck elongate; opercula conic at base, bluntly apiculate; annuli small, 1–2 rows, deciduous; peristome double; exostome teeth sometimes fused at base, with a median zigzag line, trabeculate on inner surface; endostome segments linear, as long as the teeth or longer, perforate; basal membrane low; cilia absent or reduced. Calyptrae small, cucullate, smooth. Spores spherical, papillose.