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Sematophyllaceae Broth. Search in NYBG Virtual Herbarium Decrease font Increase font Restore font
 

Published In: Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 232/233[I,3]: 1098. 1908. (Nat. Pflanzenfam.) Name publication detail
 

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Notes     (Last Modified On 4/1/2009)
general taxon notes:

 

The Sematophyllaceae include about 30 genera and some 200 species in the world. More than two-thirds of the genera are oligotypic, with four or fewer species. Distribution of the Sematophyllaceae mainly concentrates in the tropical regions. Although a basic concept of the Sematophyllaceae is well formed, the definite systematic positions of numerous genera are still somewhat uncertain. The Sematophyllaceae were dealt with and discussed by various authors (Fleischer 1923; Brotherous 1925; Seki 1968; Crosby and Magill 1981; Tan and Buck 1989; Tan and Jia1999; Tan 2000) since the family was proposed. Plants of this family often have been confused with those of the Entodontaceae, Hypnaceae or Pterobryaceae. Grout (1932) and Andrews (1954) suggested the union of Sematophyllaceae and Hypnaceae under a single family. Most of all, Sematophyllaceae seem to be more closely related to Hypnaceae. For example, Giraldiella C. Müll. was placed in these families by various workers. Brotherus (1909) transferred Giraldiella to Entodontaceae probably based on its alar cells. Later, Brotherus (1925) placed Giraldiella in the Hypnaceae based on its close similarity with Hypnum Hedw. Giraldiella was considered as a genus of the Sematophyllaceae for its endostomal segments that are several times longer than the exostome (Chen et al. 1978). It is still treated in the Sematophyllaceae in the recently published “Flora Bryophytarum Sinicorum.” Brotherus (1925), Walther (1983), Vitt (1984), Buck and Goffinet (2000) all placed Giraldiella in the Hypnaceae. Seki (1968) transferred Wijkia Crum from the Sematophyllaceae to Hypnaceae based on exothecial cells that are not collenchymatous. However, Buck (1986) noted that the nature of collenchymatous exothecial cells was only a subordinate feature for Sematophyllaceae, and suggested that Wijkia should be retained in Sematophyllaceae. After examination of the type of Struckia argentata (Mitt.) C. Müll., Tan and Buck (1989) considered Struckia C. Müll. to be better placed in Hypnaceae due to its loose and thin-walled alar cells. Hedenäs (1996) proposed that Struckia be included in the Plagiotheciaceae based on the branched rhizoids with granulose papillae. Nishimura et al. (1984) suggested that Giraldiella, Glossadelphus Fleisch. and Heterophyllium (Schimp.) Kindb. in Fleisch. should be transferred to Hypnaceae. Cladistic analyses of the Hypnales by Buck and Vitt (1986) showed that Sematophyllaceae was closest to Hydropogonaceae in a cluster, and they evolved earlier than Hypnaceae and Plagiotheciaceae. Similarly, cladistic analyses by Tan and Jia (1998) based on twenty Chinese genera indicated that Sematophyllaceae seemed to be paraphyletic. Especially, the systematic positions of Callicladium Crum, Isocladiella Dix., and Taxithelium Spruce ex Mitt. should be further studied.
 
The genera of Sematophyllaceae can be classified into three or four subfamilies, depending on whether or not to accept the subfamily Macrohymenioideae. Most species of the family are predominately distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Twenty-two genera are found in China, mostly distributed to the south of the Yangtze (Changjiang) river, especially in southern China and the southeastern of Yunnan province. Chinese genera of the Sematophyllaceae represent three subfamilies and a key to subfamilies of the Sematophyllaceae is given below. Since subfamily classification is not stressed in this floristic treatment, species and genera are not treated according to their subfamilial placements.
 
 
Key to subfamilies
 
1. Plants somewhat stout, 1–2-pinnately branched, sometimes dendroid or forkedly branched; stem and branch leaves slightly differentiated; setae very long, smooth; capsules symmetrical; endostomal segments rather broad...............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................. II. Heterophyllioideae
1. Plants slender, mostly irregularly pinnately branched, rare bi-pinnately branched; stem and branch leaves similar; setae short, sometimes slightly roughened; capsules slightly curved; endostomal segments narrow or absent.................................................................................................................................................................. 2
2. Stems often with filiform gemmae; alar cells of leaves usually in several rows, different from the cells above, not very much inflated; opercula shortly beaked; basal membrane of endostome low.................. I. Clastobryoideae
2. Stems without gemmae; alar cells of leaves usually in single row, strongly inflated, mostly yellowish, rarely small or hyaline; opercula long beaked; basal membrane of endostome usually high................. III. Sematophylloideae
 
 
I.   Clastobryoideae Fleisch.: Clastobryum Dozy & Molk.
II. Heterophyllioideae Fleisch.: Clastobryopsis Fleisch., Gammiella Broth., Heterophyllium (Schimp.) Kindb. in Fleisch., Isocladiella Dix., Pylaisiopsis (Broth.) Broth., and Struckia C. Müll.
III. Sematophylloideae Mitt.: AcanthorrhynchiumFleisch. (not treated), Acroporium Mitt., Brotherella Loeske ex Fleisch., Chionostomum C. Müll., Glossadelphus Fleisch., Hageniella Broth., Meiothecium Mitt. (not treated), Papillidiopsis (Broth.) W. R. Buck & B. C. Tan, Pseudotrismegistia Akiyama & Tsubota, Pylaisiadelpha Card., Radulina W. R. Buck & B. C. Tan, Rhaphidostichum Fleisch., Sematophyllum Mitt., Taxithelium Spruce ex Mitt., Trichosteleum Mitt., Warburgiella C. Müll. ex Broth., and Wijkia Crum.

 

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Sematophyllaceae
锦藓科 jin xian ke
by Jia Yu, Wu Peng-cheng, and Benito C. Tan
                                                                       
 
Plants slender or robust, delicate or stiff, yellow, yellowish green, green or yellowish brown, somewhat glossy, often in dense mats or tufts. Main stems creeping to ascending or erect, with rhizoids, usually irregularly branched, rarely pinnately branched, branches round or complanate; stem cross section usually round, central strand absent, without loose cells, thin or thick-walled cortex and towards the outside two to many layers of stereids to substereid peripheral cells. Leaves in several ranks, stem and branch leaves usually similar in shape, rarely differentiated, symmetric, not plicate, variable among genera in shape of leaf; costae double, very short or absent; leaf cells often narrowly rhomboidal, smooth or papillose, basal cells evidently differentiated. Autoicous or dioicous, rarely synoicous, polyoicous or phyllodioicous. Setae elongate, straight or twisted when dry; capsules inclined or pendulous, rounded ovoid or oblong-ovoid, often asymmetric; exothecial cells thin-walled; apophysis slightly developed, stomata present; opercula conic, rostrate or needle-like at apex; annuli often differentiated; peristome usually double, rarely endostome absent; exostome teeth splitting to base, very variable in shape, outer face usually cross-striate, rarely smooth, inner surface often trabeculate; exostome separating from endostome (except Chionostomum); segments usually narrowly lanceolate, keeled, rarely linear; basal membrane high; cilia usually present. Calyptrae often cucullate, smooth. Spores spherical, finely to distinctly papillose.
 

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1. Alar cells numerous, forming a cluster or grouping in tiers, mostly colored, quadrate or rectangular, not much inflated, usually thick-walled.......................................................................................................2
1. Alar cells oval or kidney-shaped, usually translucent, inflated, thin-walled, forming at least one distinctly defined basal row................................................................................................................................7
2. Caducous flagellate branchlets present on branches; propagula absent.............................. 10. Isocladiella
2. Caducous flagellate branchlets absent; asexual propagula, if present, filiform.......................................... 3
3. Branches complanate with an enlarged and caudate terminus; leaf bases decurrent; leaf axillary propagula abundant..............................................................................................................4. Clastobryopsis
3. Branches not complanate, without an enlarged and caudate terminus; leaf bases not decurrent; leaf axillary propagula few............................................................................................................................4
4. Rhizoids numerous on stems and branches...........................................................18. Struckia
4. Rhizoids rare, not commonly persistent.....................................................................................5
5. Plants small, slender, mat forming, with irregular long branches; leaves elongate-ovate, abruptly acute; endostome segments broad, short; cilia absent.........................................................6. Gammiella
5. Plants large, stout, weft forming, with irregular short branches; leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; endostome segments narrow, as long as the teeth; cilia present................................................ 6
6. Plants often growing on tree bark; paraphyllia absent; opercula obtuse; basal membrane of endostome low; cilia short........................................................................................................................ 14. Pylaisiopsis
6. Plants often growing on rotten logs; paraphyllia present; opercula shortly rostrate; basal membrane of endostome high; cilia long........................................................................................9. Heterophyllium
7. Leaf cells smooth................................................................................................................... 8
7. Leaf cells papillose or prorate.................................................................................................19
8. Stems irregularly bi- to tri-pinnately branched; stem and branch leaves different in size and shape..... 22. Wijkia
8. Plants regularly branched; stem and branch leaves similar, or different only in size................................. 9
9. Leaves abruptly constricted into a narrow or filiform acumen....................................................10
9. Leaves acute or gradually long acuminate................................................................................11
10. Leaves erect spreading, at most slightly falcate, without a broad sheathing base; calyptrae small, cucullate.........................................................................................................16. Rhaphidostichum
10. Leaves strongly falcate, with a broad sheathing base; calyptrae large, campanulate......21. Warburgiella in part
11. Peristome single........................................Meiothecium (reported from Taiwan, not seen for this study)
11. Peristome double..............................................................................................................12 
12. Exostome teeth non-striate............................................................................3. Chionostomum
12. Exostome teeth striate........................................................................................................13
13. Leaves lingulate to ligulate, margins bordered, irregularly and strongly toothed in the tongue-like portion..
...............................................................................................................12. Pseudotrismegistia
13. Leaves ovate, oblong to lanceolate, margins not bordered, entire or serrulate............................14
14. Leaves often triseriate...........................................................................5. Clastobryum in part
14. Leaves conspicuously in more than 3 rows..........................................................................15
15. Alar cells few, 4–5, not forming a continuous basal row reaching to costa...............................16
15. Alar cells, including the well developed supra-alar cells, more than 6, often forming a continuous basal row reaching to costa......................................................................................................................17
16. Plants green or yellowish brown, with filiform propagula in leaf axils; leaves not concave.....................
.......................................................................................................................13. Pylaisiadelpha
16. Plants reddish or purplish brown, without filiform propagula; leaves strongly concave.... 8. Hageniella
17. Leaf apex toothed; exothecial cells not collenchymatous, thickened along vertical cell walls.... 2. Brotherella
17. Leaf apex entire or weakly toothed; exothecial cells strongly collenchymatous...............................18
18. Leaves strongly concave, margins involute; alar cells large, often curved, kidney-shaped........................
...............................................................................................................1. Acroporium in part
18. Leaves flat or slightly concave, margins plane or reflexed; alar cells small, oval to oblong.....................
................................................................................................................17. Sematophyllum
19. Leaves triseriate, leaf cells sparingly papillose or prorate............................5. Clastobryum in part
19. Leaves not triseriate, leaf cells uniformly papillose or prorate................................................20
20. Leaf cells pluripapillose or uni- or bi-seriately papillose........................................................ 21
20. Leaf cells unipapillose or prorate.........................................................................................22
21. Leaves falcate-secund; setae papillose above; opercula obliquely long-rostrate; exothecial cells strongly collenchymatous............................................................................................15. Radulina
21. Leaves not clearly falcate-secund; setae smooth throughout; opercula conic, short; exothecial cells not collenchymatous...........................................................................................19. Taxithelium
22. Leaves strongly falcate, leaf cells weakly prorate................................................ 21. Warburgiella in part
22. Leaves erect-spreading, flexuose or slightly curved, leaf cells papillose or strongly prorate.............. 23
23. Opercula conic, short; exothecial cells not collenchymatous...................................................24
23. Opercula long-rostrate; exothecial cells collenchymatous.......................................................25
24. Leaves ovate at base, long-filiform-acuminate toward apex; leaf cells shortly fusiform..........................
.................................................................................. Acanthorrhynchium (reported from Taiwan, not seen)
24. Leaves oblong-ovate or lingulate, obtuse or bluntly pointed at apex; leaf cells linear...... 7. Glossadelphus
25. Outermost alar cells long and curved; capsules erect to suberect............................1. Acroporium in part
25. Outmost alar cells not long and curved; capsules inclined or pendulous....................................26
26. Leaves hooded in the upper half; apex somewhat constricted and narrowed into an acumen; alar cells often thick-walled............................................................................................................... 11. Papillidiopsis
26. Leaves concave throughout; apex gradually attenuate; alar cells mostly thin-walled......20. Trichosteleum

 

 
 
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