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Publicado en: Outlines of Botany 854, 1093, 1123. 1835. (Feb 1835) (Outlines Bot.) Name publication detail
 

Datos del Proyecto Nombre (Last Modified On 8/26/2009)
Aceptación : Accepted
 

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BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE) (Mustard Family)

Contributed by Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz and George Yatskievych

Plants annual or perennial herbs, rarely woody at the base or shrubby. Leaves alternate or basal, rarely opposite or whorled, lacking stipules, entire to deeply lobed or compound. Inflorescences terminal (except in some species of Lepidium), short to elongate racemes or panicles, or reduced to single, long-stalked flowers (in Leavenworthia). Flowers mostly actinomorphic, perfect. Calyces of 4 free or rarely united sepals. Corollas of 4 free petals, these uncommonly reduced or absent, often narrowed to stalklike bases. Stamens (2, 4)6, often the outer 2 shorter than the inner 4. Ovary 1 per flower, superior, of 2 fused carpels, usually with 2 locules. Style 1 per flower, persistent in the fruits, the stigma 1, entire or 2-lobed. Ovules 1 to numerous. Fruits uncommonly indehiscent and achenelike or more commonly 2-valved capsules that dehisce longitudinally leaving a persistent replum (the thin, placental band of tissue around the periphery of the septum, the partition between the 2 locules), these arbitrarily referred to as siliques when more than 3 times as long as wide or silicles when less than 3 times as long as wide. Seeds variously shaped, with curved embryos. About 350 genera, about 3,500 species, worldwide, but most diverse in temperate and alpine regions and dry areas.

The petals of most species of Brassicaceae are arranged in the shape of a cross, leading to the common name crucifer and the familial name Cruciferae. The family contains a large number of economically important species, both beneficial plants cultivated for food and oils and detrimental weeds. Although separate keys to flowering and fruiting material are given, most species flower for long enough that flowers and fruits are present at the same time. It is recommended that both keys are used, and a more reliable determination to the genus is achieved when both keys are successfully used to reach to the same genus.

An important character of the fruits is whether they are circular in cross-section, 4-angled, or slightly to strongly flattened. If flattened, they can be flattened parallel or at a right angle to the septum. In parallel-flattened fruits, the septum is a broad band of tissue between the 2 faces (valves) extending the full width of the fruit, and the replum is visible as a line along the edge of each face. In fruits flattened at a right angle, the septum is a narrow line of tissue bisecting each face, and the replum is visible as a line along the middle of the face. Such fruits sometimes also have lines or wings along the margins and are almost always shorter than 3 times as long as wide.

 

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1 All flower stalks arranged in racemes or panicles (2)
+ All or nearly all of the flowers solitary on long stalks originating from the basal rosette 25. Leavenworthia
2 (1) Stamens (4)6 (3)
+ Stamens 2 26. Lepidium
3 (2) Petals present (5)
+ Petals absent (4)
4 (3) Plants with at least some branched hairs 18. Draba
+ Plants glabrous 36. Rorippa
5 (3) Petals white, pink, or purple (6)
+ Petals yellow or orange, rarely pale yellow (30)
6 (5) Petals deeply 2-lobed at the tip (7)
+ Petals not lobed, entire or slightly notched at the tip (8)
7 (6) Stem leaves many 8. Berteroa
+ Stem leaves absent 18. Draba
8 (6) Stems rooting from most nodes 30. Nasturtium
+ Stems not rooting from nodes (9)
9 (8) Upper stem leaves clasping or auriculate (10)
+ Upper stem leaves neither clasping nor auriculate, sometimes absent (16)
10 (9) Plants with at least some branched hairs (11)
+ Plants glabrous or exclusively with simple hairs (13)
11 (10) Ovaries triangular to obcordate in profile; stellate hairs sessile 12. Capsella
+ Ovaries linear in outline; stellate hairs absent or with a short-stalked base (12)
12 (11) Stellate hairs stalked; young fruits appressed to the axis of the inflorescence 4. Arabis
+ Stellate hairs absent, or if present, then the young fruits spreading in relationship to the axis of the inflorescence 9. Boechera
13 (10) Ovaries and young fruits linear in profile 23. Iodanthus
+ Ovaries and young fruits ovate to circular in profile (14)
14 (13) Ovules 2 per ovary 26. Lepidium
+ Ovules at least 4 per ovary (15)
15 (14) Stem leaves with the margins entire; crushed or bruised plants with neither an unpleasant aroma nor an odor of garlic 29. Microthlaspi
+ Stem leaves with the margins toothed; crushed or bruised plants usually with an unpleasant aroma or an odor of garlic 40. Thlaspi
16 (9) Plants with at least some branched hairs (17)
+ Plants glabrous or exclusively with unbranched hairs (22)
17 (16) Plants uniformly pubescent with appressed hairs each having 2 opposite branches, thus appearing as a straight line with an attachment point near the center 27. Lobularia
+ Plants with more than one kind of hair (18)
18 (17) Ovaries and young fruits linear (19)
+ Ovaries and young fruits oblong, elliptic, or ovate (21)
19 (18) Uppermost stem leaves linear, the margins entire 8. Arabidopsis
+ Uppermost stem leaves ovate to lanceolate, the margins usually toothed (20)
20 (19) Petals white; stigmas entire; plants not glandular 9. Boechera
+ Petals purple or pink, rarely white; stigmas 2-lobed; plants sparsely to moderately glandular 22. Hesperis
21 (18) Petals purple or pink; plants perennial; styles 4–8 mm long 6. Aubrieta
+ Petals white; plants annual; styles absent or to 0.2 mm long 18. Draba
22 (16) Plants with stalked glands 14. Chorispora
+ Plants without glands (23)
23 (22) Petals purple, or if pink or white, then with darker veins (24)
+ Petals white or if pink then the veins not darker than the rest of the petal (25)
24 (23) Petal veins distinctly darker than the rest of the petal; ovaries and young fruits sessile 34. Raphanus
+ Petal veins not darker than the rest of the petal; ovaries and young fruits with a stalk above the receptacle (attachment point of the calyx and corolla) 28. Lunana
25 (23) Ovaries and young fruits circular or ovate in profile (26)
+ Ovaries and young fruits linear in profile (27)
26 (25) Ovules 2 per ovary 26. Lepidium
+ Ovules many per ovary 5. Armoracia
27 (25) Plants perennial with rhizomes or tubers 13. Cardamine
+ Plants annual or biennial (28)
28 (27) Upper stem leaves broadly ovate to triangular, the margins coarsely toothed but not lobed; plants with the odor of garlic when crushed or bruised 1. Alliaria
+ Upper stem leaves pinnately divided (29)
29 (28) Young fruits with the replum winged; seeds wingless 13. Cardamine
+ Young fruits with the replum wingless; seeds winged 33. Planodes
30 (5) Inflorescences bracteate, at least toward the base (31)
+ Inflorescences not bracteate (32)
31 (30) Ovaries linear in profile; petals 4–7 mm long; styles 1.5–3.0 mm long 20. Erucastrum
+ Ovaries oblong or elliptic in profile; petals 8–11 mm long; styles 5–10 mm long 37. Selenia
32 (30) Petal veins distinctly darker than the rest of blade (33)
+ Petal veins not darker than the rest of blade (34)
33 (32) Stigma 2-lobed; pistil not segmented 19. Eruca
+ Stigma not lobed; pistil segmented above the base into a sterile lower segment and ovulate upper segment 34. Raphanus
34 (32) Upper stem leaves perfoliate, clasping, or auriculate (35)
+ Upper stem leaves petiolate or sessile, not clasping or auriculate (43)
35 (34) Plants with at least some branched hairs (36)
+ Plants glabrous or with exclusively simple hairs (38)
36 (35) Ovaries and young fruits linear in profile 41. Turritis
+ Ovaries and young fruits ovate, pear-shaped, or circular in profile (37)
37 (36) Petals 1.5–2.5 mm long; ovules 4 per ovary 31. Neslia
+ Petals 3.0–5.5 mm long; ovules 6–12 per ovary 11. Camelina
38 (35) Ovules 1 or 2 per ovary (39)
+ Ovules more than 8 per ovary (40)
39 (38) Lowermost stem leaves entire or toothed 24. Isatis
+ Lowermost stem leave 2 or 3 times pinnately divided 26. Lepidium
40 (38) Upper stem leaves entire, often glaucous (41)
+ Upper stem leaves toothed or pinnately lobed, not glaucous (42)
41 (40) Pistils and young fruits beaked 10. Brassica
+ Pistils and young fruits not beaked 15. Conringia
42 (40) Stems angled; ovules in 1 row per locule 7. Barbarea
+ Stems not angled; ovules in 2 rows per locule 36. Rorippa
43 (34) Plants with at least some branched hairs (44)
+ Plants glabrous or with simple hairs only (47)
44 (43) Leaves 2 or 3 times pinnately divided; branched hairs treelike (with a stalked base and somewhat ascending branches) 16. Descurainia
+ Leaves entire or toothed; branched hairs stellate, sessile (45)
45 (44) Ovaries and young fruits linear in profile 21. Erysimum
+ Ovaries and young fruits circular or nearly so in profile (46)
46 (45) Petals 2–4 mm long; simple hairs present in addition to the branched hairs; style less than 1 mm long 2. Alyssum
+ Petals 5–11 mm long; simple hairs absent, the hairs all branched; styles 2–5 mm long 32. Physaria
47 (43) Most of the leaves basal 17. Diplotaxis
+ Most of the leaves on the stem (48)
48 (47) Sepals spreading or reflexed at flowering 38. Sinapis
+ Sepals erect or ascending at flowering (49)
49 (48) Ovules 1–4 per ovary 35. Rapistrum
+ Ovules more than 10 per ovary (50)
50 (49) Plants aquatic or of wet areas; ovary and young fruits oblong in profile, rarely linear; ovules in 2 rows per locule 36. Rorippa
+ Plants terrestrial; ovary and young fruits linear in profile; ovules in 1 row per locule (51)
51 (50) Stigmas 2-lobed; uppermost leaves pinnately divided 39. Sisymbrium
+ Stigmas entire; uppermost leaves often toothed or entire 10. Brassica
 
 
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