Decrease font Increase font Restore font Phalaris caroliniana Walter
Details
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Group: Monocot Rank: species Herbarium Placement: Lehmann, lower, A, 19

Authors: Published In: Flora Caroliniana, secundum . . . 74. 1788. (Fl. Carol.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
Type-Protologue
Distribution: USA (South Carolina)
Type Specimens
  • NT: Wilbur H. Duncan 9468; 4 May 1949; USA: South Carolina: McCormick Co.: in open field of moist bottomland ca. 1 1/3 mi due N of Clark Hill Dam, elv. ca. 200 ft (US-2075588) NT designated by D.E. Anderson, Iowa State Journ. Sci. 36(1): 80 (1961)
Higher Taxa:     Taxonomy Browser
Concept:    details Projects: IPCN , Missouri , New World Grasses

Common Names:
  • Carolina canary grass (English, United States)
  • May grass (English, United States)
Keywords: AGF, GPR, IGS, US.TYPES, FNA
Images:

Berlandier - 208 - United States


Gregg - 454 - Mexico


Lindheimer - 105 - United States


Lindheimer - s.n. - United States


Palmer - 32 - Mexico


Schott - 19 - United States


Summers - 4903 - United States


Wright - 1966 - United States


Yatskievych - 94-50 - United States


Synonyms
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  • Phalaris americana Elliott
    • Reference article Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • Reference article Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Phalaris intermedia Bosc ex Poir.
    • Reference article CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
  • Phalaris intermedia var. microstachya (DC.) Vasey
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Phalaris intermedia var. microstachya (DC.) Vasey ex L.H. Dewey
    • Reference article Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Phalaris microstachya DC.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
    • Reference article Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
  • Phalaris occidentalis Nutt.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • Reference article Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
  • Phalaris trivialis Trin.
Accepted Names
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References
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Accepted By:
  • Reference article Abrams, L. 1923. Ferns to Birthworts. 1: 1–557. In L. Abrams (ed.) Ill. Fl. Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
  • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
  • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1977. Noteworthy grasses from Mexico V. Phytologia 37(4): 317–407. View in Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
  • Reference article CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Reference article Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Reference article Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].
  • Reference article Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Reference article Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S.. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Reference article Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Reference article Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Reference article Gould, F. W. & R. Moran. 1981. The grasses of Baja California, Mexico. Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 1–140.
  • Reference article Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Reference article Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Reference article Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
  • Reference article Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W.. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Reference article Kucera, C. L. 1998. The Grasses of Missouri 305 pp., University of Missouri Press, Colombia.
  • Reference article Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. 1985. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. Gayana, Bot. 42: 1–157.
  • Reference article Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Reference article Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Reference article Shreve, F. & I. L. Wiggins. 1964. Veg. Fl. Sonoran Des. 2 vols. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Reference article Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Reference article Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
  • Reference article Zuloaga, F. O., O. N. Morrone, M. J. Belgrano, C. Marticorena & E. Marchesi. (eds.) 2008. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares del Cono Sur. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 107(1–3): i–xcvi, 1–3348.
Homonyms
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Subordinate Taxa
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Specimens
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Specimen coordinates enclosed in square brackets [ ] have been approximated based on political units.
Literature Based Distribution
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Mapping will be based on a standard reference mark based on political units when available.
  • Oceania
    • Australia : Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
  • South America
    • Chile : Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. 1985. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. Gayana, Bot. 42: 1–157.
  • Europe
    • Germany : Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
  • Mesoamerica
    • Mexico : Beetle, A.A. 1977. Noteworthy grasses from Mexico V. Phytologia 37(4): 317–407.
    • Mexico : Gould, F. W. & R. Moran. 1981. The grasses of Baja California, Mexico. Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 1–140.
    • Mexico : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Mexico : Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Mexico : Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Mexico : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Europe
    • Switzerland : Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
  • North America
    • United States : Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States : Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States : Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States : Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States : Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
    • United States : Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
    • United States : Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
    • United States : Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
    • United States : Beetle, A.A. 1977. Noteworthy grasses from Mexico V. Phytologia 37(4): 317–407.
    • United States : Gould, F. W. & R. Moran. 1981. The grasses of Baja California, Mexico. Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 1–140.
    • United States : Kucera, C. L. 1998. The Grasses of Missouri 305 pp., University of Missouri Press, Colombia.
    • United States : Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
  • Mesoamerica
    • Mexico Baja California: Gould, F. W. & R. Moran. 1981. The grasses of Baja California, Mexico. Mem. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 1–140.
    • Mexico Baja California: Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Mexico Chihuahua: Beetle, A.A. 1977. Noteworthy grasses from Mexico V. Phytologia 37(4): 317–407.
    • Mexico Chihuahua: Herrera Arrieta, Y. & A. Cortés Ortiz. 2010. Listado florístico y aspectos ecológicos de la familia Poaceae para Chihuahua, Durango y Zacatecas, México. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(2): 711–738.
    • Mexico Coahuila: Beetle, A.A. 1977. Noteworthy grasses from Mexico V. Phytologia 37(4): 317–407.
    • Mexico Coahuila: Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Mexico México: Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Mexico Sonora: Beetle, A.A. 1977. Noteworthy grasses from Mexico V. Phytologia 37(4): 317–407.
    • Mexico Sonora: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • Mexico Sonora: Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
  • North America
    • United States Alabama: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States Alabama: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Alabama: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Alabama: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Arkansas: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Arkansas: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Arkansas: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Arizona: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States Arizona: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Arizona: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Arizona: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States California: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States California: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States California: Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
    • United States California: Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
    • United States California: Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
    • United States California: Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
    • United States California: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States California: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States California: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Colorado: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Colorado: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Colorado: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Colorado: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Colorado: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Florida: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States Florida: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Florida: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Florida: Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
    • United States Florida: Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
    • United States Florida: Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
    • United States Florida: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Florida: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Florida: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Georgia: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States Georgia: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Georgia: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Georgia: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Kansas: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Kansas: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Kansas: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Kansas: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Kansas: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Kentucky: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Kentucky: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Kentucky: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Louisiana: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Louisiana: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Louisiana: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Maryland: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Maryland: Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
    • United States Maryland: Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
    • United States Missouri: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Missouri: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Missouri: Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
    • United States Missouri: Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
    • United States Missouri: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Missouri: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Missouri: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Mississippi: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States Mississippi: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Mississippi: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Mississippi: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States North Carolina: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States North Carolina: Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
    • United States North Carolina: Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
    • United States North Carolina: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States North Carolina: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States North Carolina: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States New Mexico: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States New Mexico: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States New Mexico: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States New Mexico: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Nevada: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States Nevada: Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
    • United States Nevada: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Nevada: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Nevada: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Ohio: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Ohio: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Oklahoma: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Oklahoma: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Oklahoma: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States Oklahoma: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Oklahoma: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Oklahoma: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Oregon: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Oregon: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States Oregon: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Oregon: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Oregon: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Oregon: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States South Carolina: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States South Carolina: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States South Carolina: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States South Carolina: Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • United States South Carolina: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Tennessee: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States Tennessee: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Tennessee: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Tennessee: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Tennessee: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Texas: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Texas: Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
    • United States Texas: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States Texas: Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
    • United States Texas: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Texas: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Texas: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Utah: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Utah: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Utah: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States Virginia: Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
    • United States Virginia: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
    • United States Virginia: Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
    • United States Virginia: Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
    • United States Virginia: Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Monocot. 1–712. The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
    • United States Virginia: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Virginia: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States Virginia: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • United States Virginia: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Caribbean
    • Caribbean Puerto Rico: Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Caribbean Puerto Rico: Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Caribbean Puerto Rico: Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • North America
    • United States Alabama Montgomery: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Arkansas Sebastian: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Arizona Cochise: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States California Butte: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Georgia Clarke: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Kansas Neosho: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Louisiana Jefferson: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Missouri Jasper: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Mississippi Jackson: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States North Carolina New Hanover: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States New Mexico Grant: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Nevada Lincoln: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Oklahoma Kingfisher: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States South Carolina Georgetown: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States South Carolina McCormick: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • United States Texas Mitchell: Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
 
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