Decrease font Increase font Restore font Phalaris L.
Details
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Group: Monocot Rank: genus Herbarium Placement: Lehmann, lower, A, 19

Authors: Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 54. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
Annotation: nom. et typ. cons., see Taxon 44: 611-612 (1995)
Type Specimens Higher Taxa:     Taxonomy Browser
Concept:    details Projects: Antioquia , Bolivia , China , Costa Rica , Ecuador , IPCN , Mesoamericana , Missouri , New World Grasses , Pakistan , Peru

Common Names:
  • Canary grass (English, United States)
  • ge cao shu
    • No References available
Keywords: AGF, BOL, CEC, FCC, FNA, MC, PAK, PBRZ, AFRI

Synonyms
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  • Baldingera G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Missouri Botanical Garden. MO Generic Names in Use
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Digraphis Trin.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Missouri Botanical Garden. MO Generic Names in Use
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
  • Endallex Raf.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Missouri Botanical Garden. MO Generic Names in Use
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
  • Phalaridantha St.-Lag.
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • Reference article Missouri Botanical Garden. MO Generic Names in Use
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Phalaroides Wolf
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, K. Romaschenko, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2015 and onwards. Poaceae Genera of the World. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, K. Romaschenko, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone Internet Catalogue of World Grass Genera: On-line updates, corrections, and synonymy. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Missouri Botanical Garden. MO Generic Names in Use
  • Typhoides Moench
    • Reference article Missouri Botanical Garden. MO Generic Names in Use
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
    • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
    • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
    • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
Accepted Names
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References
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Accepted By:
  • Reference article Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36(1): 1–96.
  • Reference article Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae). Webbia 49(2): 265–329.
  • Reference article Beetle, A.A. 1999. Gram. México 5: 1–466. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulícos: COTECOCA, México.
  • Reference article Bor, N. L. 1960. Grass. Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan i–767. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  • Reference article Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul.
  • Reference article Davidse, G. & R. W. Pohl. 1994. 45. Phalaris L. 6: 236–237. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer.. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.
  • Reference article Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater. 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. 6: i–xvi, 1–543. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer.. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.
  • Reference article Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].
  • Reference article Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
  • Reference article Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Reference article Jørgensen, P. M., M. H. Nee & S. G. Beck. (eds.) 2014. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Bolivia, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 127(1–2): i–viii, 1–1744. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Reference article Jørgensen, P. M., M. H. Nee & S. G. Beck. (eds.) 2015 en adelante. Catalogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia (adiciones).
  • Reference article Longhi-Wagner, H. M., V. Bittich, M. das G. L. Wanderley & G. J. Shepherd. 2001. Poaceae. 1: 1–292. In M. G. L. Wanderly, G. J. Shepherd & A. M. Giulietti (eds.) Fl. Fanerog. Estado São Paulo. Editora Hucitec, São Paulo.
  • Reference article Luteyn, J. L. 1999. Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 84: viii–xv, 1–278.
  • Reference article Missouri Botanical Garden. MO Generic Names in Use
  • Reference article Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Reference article Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Reference article Renvoize, S. A. 1998. Gram. Bolivia 1–644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Reference article Sharp, D. & B. K. Simon. 2002. AusGrass: Grasses of Australia. CD-ROM, Version 1.0. CD–ROM.
  • Reference article Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488. View in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
  • Reference article Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Reference article Soreng, R. J., P. M. Peterson, K. Romaschenko, G. Davidse, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras, J. I. Davis & O. Morrone. 2015. A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae). J. Syst. Evol. 53(2): 117–137, f. 1.
  • Reference article Valdés, B. & H. Scholz. 2006. The Euro+Med treatment of Gramineae - a generic synopsis and some new names. Willdenowia 36(2): 657–669.
General:
Homonyms
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Subordinate Taxa
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Specimens
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Literature Based Distribution
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Mapping will be based on a standard reference mark based on political units when available.
  • South America
    • Argentina : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Argentina : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Argentina : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Oceania
    • Australia : Sharp, D. & B. K. Simon. 2002. AusGrass: Grasses of Australia. CD-ROM, Version 1.0. CD–ROM.
  • South America
    • Bolivia : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Bolivia : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Brazil : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Brazil : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Brazil : Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
    • Brazil : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • North America
    • Canada : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Canada : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Canada : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • South America
    • Chile : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Chile : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Chile : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Colombia : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Colombia : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Mesoamerica
    • Costa Rica : Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater. 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. 6: i–xvi, 1–543. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.
    • Costa Rica : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Costa Rica : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Costa Rica : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • South America
    • Ecuador : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Ecuador : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Ecuador : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Mesoamerica
    • El Salvador : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • El Salvador : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Mexico : Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater. 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. 6: i–xvi, 1–543. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.
    • Mexico : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Panama : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Panama : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • South America
    • Peru : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Peru : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Paraguay : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Asia
    • Turkey : Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul.
  • South America
    • Uruguay : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Uruguay : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Uruguay : Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • North America
    • United States : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • United States : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • United States : USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge.
  • South America
    • Venezuela : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Venezuela : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Caribbean
    • Caribbean : Soreng, R. J. 2003. Phalaris. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 479–488.
    • Caribbean : Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • South America
    • Colombia Antioquia: Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • North America
    • United States Alaska: Morales Quirós, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera Mora & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Man. Pl. Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
 
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