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Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt. Search in The Plant ListSearch in Index Nominum Genericorum (ING)Search in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in JSTOR Plant ScienceSearch in SEINetSearch in African Plants Database at Geneva Botanical Garden Decrease font Increase font Restore font
 

Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 12: 509. 1869. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

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Notes     (Last Modified On 4/2/2009)
general taxon notes:
The genus consists of 30 species in the world; 11 of them are recognized from China. Ctenidium enerve (Herz. & Nog.) Kanda. from Taiwan is uncertain and may be conspecific with C. serratifolium (Nishimura 1985). Ctenidium pubescens (Hook. f. & Wils.) Broth. reported by Y.-F. Zheng (1989) from Anhui is Ctenidium serratifolium (Card.) Broth. and this species has not yet been found in China. The genus is characterized by the dimorphic stem and branch leaves that are distinctly serrate and more or less erect, not particularly falcate.

 

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4. Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt.   梳藓属    shu xian shu
J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 509. 1869. Ctenidium subgen. Eu-Ctenidium Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. I(3): 1048. 1908. Hypnum sect. Ctenidium (Schimp.) De Not., Cronac. Briol. Ital. 2: 29. 1867. Stereodon sect. Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 8: 153. 1864. Hypnum subgen. Ctenidium Schimp., Syn. Musc. Eur. 631. 1860.
 
Plants slender to robust. Stems prostrate or somewhat ascending, rarely suberect, regularly or irregularly pinnately branched; branches remote or dense; stem rounded or elliptic in cross section, epidermal cells small, outer cortical cells 3–5 layers, central strand slightly developed; rhizoids reddish brown, papillose; pseudoparaphyllia rounded foliose or triangular, short to long-acuminate, laciniate at margins. Stem leaves and branch leaves distinctly differentiated; leaves densely arranged, falcate-secund, usually cordate and decurrent at base, not or slightly plicate, abruptly narrowed to slenderly acuminate apex; margins serrate; costae double, short or indistinct; leaf cells linear, often prorate; alar cells quadrate or shortly rectangular, sometimes inflated; branch leaves narrower, ovate-lanceolate. Dioicous, rarely autoicous. Inner perichaetial leaves erect, oblong-ovate at base, abruptly slenderly acuminate at apex, sheathing base with hairs. Setae elongate, reddish, smooth or nearly smooth; capsules inclined to horizontal, ovoid or oblong-ovoid, arcuate; opercula conic, shortly or bluntly rostrate; annuli differentiated, deciduous; peristome double; exostome teeth lanceolate, united at base, orange or golden and cross-striate at base, hyaline and papillose above on the outer surface, trabeculate on the inner surface, bordered; endostome segments linear-lanceolate, yellowish, perforate, papillose; basal membrane low; cilia 2–3, nodulose. Calyptrae cucullate, hairy. Spores yellowish brown, nearly smooth.
 
 
 
 

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1. Stem leaf cells smooth or without clear projections at the front corners; leaf margins finely serrulate; basal margins of branch leaves usually recurved................................................................................................. 2
1. Stem upper leaf cells clearly prorate at the front corners; leaf margins serrulate or grossly serrate; basal margins of branch leaves rarely recurved.....................................................................................3
2. Stems 1.5–2.5(–3.0) cm long; stem median leaf cells 40–50 µm long............................... 9. C. pinnatum
2. Stems 3–5 cm long, rarely longer; Stem median leaf cells 70–80 μm long..................... 3. C. ceylanicum
3. Basal part of stem leaves wider than long; alar cells long-rectangular; stem leaf margins grossly serrate, sometimes spinosely dentate.............................................................................7. C. malacobolum
3. Basal part of stem leaves longer than wide; alar cells short-rectangular or long-rectangular; stem leaf margins neither grossly serrate, nor spinose-dentate......................................................................................... 4
4. Stem leaves usually strongly falcate-secund; branches often hooked at the apices; alar cells long rectangular, regularly arranged..........................................................................8. C. molluscum
4. Stem leaves weakly falcate, not strongly falcate-secund; branches not hooked at the apices; alar cells mostly long-rectangular, more or less irregularly arranged......................................................................... 5
5. Stem leaves divergent, erect to patent or spreading, sometimes recurved at the apices; branch leaves not complanate............................................................................................................................6
5. Stem leaves not divergent, dorsal leaves weakly appressed on stems, lateral and ventral leaves patent to spreading; branch leaves nearly complanate...................................................................................7
6. Stem leaves erect to patent, not recurved at the apices, ovate- to triangular-lanceolate, gradually acuminate, asymmetrical, 1.6–2.0 mm long; median leaf cells 60–70 μm long, upper leaf cells smooth or weakly prorate at the front corners.............................................................................. 2. C. capillifolium
6. Stem leaves patent to spreading, weakly recurved at the apices; widely ovate-lanceolate, abruptly narrowed into long acumens, symmetrical, 1.2–1.5 mm long; median leaf cells ca. 50 μm long, slightly prorate at the front corners.......................................................................................................... 4. C. hastile
7. Stem leaves with short acumens; median leaf cells 5–6 μm wide......................5. C. homalophyllum
7. Stem leaves with long acumens; median leaf cells less than 4 μm wide.............................................8
8. Stem leaves weakly falcate, abruptly acuminate; leaf cells prorate at the front corners............................ 9
8. Stem leaves not falcate to rarely somewhat falcate, gradually acuminate; leaf cells smooth, rarely weakly prorate at the front corners.............................................................................................................. 10
9. Alar regions of stem leaves strongly excavated with long-rectangular cells...........................1. C. andoi
9. Alar regions of stem leaves only weakly excavated with elliptic cells.................................. 11. C. stellulatum
10. Leaf apices of stem leaves as long as or shorter than the basal parts; cell walls of alar cells less than 2.5 μm thick..................................................................................................................... 10. C. serratifolium
10. Leaf apices of stem leaves as long as or longer than the basal parts; cell walls of alar cells mostly 2.5–4.5 μm thick..................................................................................................................6. C. lychnites
 
 
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