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Fissidens Hedw. Search in The Plant ListSearch in Index Nominum Genericorum (ING)Search in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in JSTOR Plant ScienceSearch in SEINetSearch in African Plants Database at Geneva Botanical Garden Decrease font Increase font Restore font
 

Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum 152. 1801. (Sp. Musc. Frond.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/10/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 3/11/2009)
General Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 3/11/2009)
general taxon notes:

The genus Fissidens is composed of about 450 species in the world (Crosby et al. 2000), and 49 species and 9 varieties are recognized in China. Range extensions of numerous Fissidens species were reported by Iwatsuki and P.-C. Wu (1988) and Iwatuski et al. (1999).

Doubtful records

 
1. Fissidens crassipes Wils. ex Bruch & Schimp. in B. S. G., Bryol. Eur. 1: 197. Pl. 100. 1849 (fasc. 42 Mon. Suppl. 1: 1, pl. 1). 
 
This species was reported by C. Gao (1977) from northeastern China based on a specimen collected from Jilin province (An-tu Co., Gao 1451). Unfortuniately, the specimen can not be located. The species is likely to be recollected in China in the future.
 
2. Fissidens adianthoides Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 157. 1801.
 
M.-X. Zhang (1978) reported this species from Qing-ling Mts., Shaanxi province, northwestern China (Xiao-wu-tai-shan, Z.-P. Wei 6120). This specimen is identical to Fissidens anomalus (Z.-H. Li 1985). Wilson (1848) also reported this species from Hong Kong. However, it is quite doubtful that species occurs in Hong Kong. D.-K. Li and C.-H. Gao (1983) listed this species from Zhejiang province and Y.-X. Xiong (1992) reported it from Guizhou. However, we have not seen any of these specimens upon which their reports were based. Fissidens adianthoides is a widely distributed species in the Northern Hemisphere, but in Japan only two specimens were collected. Its occurrence in China is very likely, but it may be very rare.
 

 

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1. Fissidens Hedw.    凤尾藓属    feng-wei xian shu
Sp. Musc. Frond. 152. 1801.
 
For description of the genus, see that of the family.
 

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1. Leaves without costa............................................................................................. 25. F. hyalinus

1. Leaves with costa.................................................................................................................................................... 2
2. Plants minute, budlike with very short stems.................................................................................................. 3
2. Plants larger, with distinct elongate stems...................................................................................................... 4
3. Protonema persistent; costa very weak, lacking on lower leaves; cells of apical laminae 23–35(–45) µm long; calyptra smooth, ...................................................................................................... 41. F. protonemaecola
3. Protonema not persistent; costa distinct; cells of apical laminae 13–17(–21) µm long; calyptra distinctly
scabrous by papillae at upper end of each surface cell.................................... 8. F. closteri subsp. kiusiuensis
4. Leaves soft; cells of apical laminae lax and large, 19–50 µm long............................................................... 5
4. Leaves more or less firm; cells of apical laminae dense, usually not more than 20 µm long, or if longer, the upper end of vaginant laminae extremely unequal.................................................................................... 6
5. Leaves densely arranged to the base of stems, without limbidia or weakly bordered by 1–2 rows of elongate cells (often submarginal)...................................................................................4. F. bogoriensis
5. Leaves laxly arranged, at least not densely arranged to the base of stems, with distinct limbidia all around the margins......................................................................................................16. F. flaccidus
6. Leaves at least partially limbate...........................................................................................................7
6. Leaves not limbate........................................................................................................................... 29
7. Limbidia all around the leaf margins ................................................................................................... 8
7. Limbidia confined to the vaginant laminae or present only on vaginant laminae of perichaetial leaves....... 16
8. Capsules curved, asymmetrical........................................................................................................................ 9
8. Capsules straight to nearly straight, symmetrical ....................................................................................... 10
9. Leaves lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; upper end of vaginant laminae open to costa (extremely unequal); cells of apical laminae 17–35 µm long........................................................................................... 3. F. beckettii
9. Leaves oblong‑lanceolate to ovate‑lanceolate; upper end of vaginant laminae equal to slightly unequal; cells of apical laminae 7–14 µm long................................................................................................... 50. F. tosaensis
10. Laminal cells with a small papilla in center.................................................................... 1. F. angustifolius
10. Laminal cells smooth................................................................................................................................... 11
11. Cells at base of vaginant laminae up to 42 µm long, much longer than those of apical and dorsal laminae
(9–21 µm long); axillary hyaline nodules well differentiated........................................................................ 12
11. Cells at base of vaginant laminae up to 21 µm long, only slightly longer than those of apical and dorsal laminae (5–14 µm long); axillary hyaline nodules not or weakly differentiated.......................................... 13
12. Leaves lanceolate, synoicous............................................................................................. 52. F. zollingeri
12. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, rhizoautoicous................................................................. 46. F. subbryoides
13. Sterile and fertile stems often differentiated; inflorescences rhizoautoicous; perichaetial leaves much larger than lower leaves................................................................................................................ 12. F. curvatus
13. Sterile and fertile stems undifferentiated; inflorescences various; perichaetial leaves not well differentiated from lower stem leaves ............................................................................................................. 14
14. Limbidia weak to relatively distinct, usually colorless; base of dorsal laminae not decurrent........ 5. F. bryoides
14. Limbidia usually distinct on apical laminae, yellowish on older leaves; base of dorsal laminae more or less decurrent, or not decurrent............................................................................................................ 15
15. Plants 5–15 mm high; leaves 1.8–2.5 mm long; setae 2.5–5.0(–10.0) mm long, lateral or terminal; antheridia 120–170 µm long..................................................................................................... 32. F. longisetus
15. Plants smaller, not more than 10 mm high; leaves 1.4–1.6 mm long; setae 3.5–4.0 mm long; antheridia (190–) 210–340 µm long ................................................................................................................ 20. F. geppii
16. Leaf cells and exothecial cells distinctly unipapilllose .................................................. 6. F. capitulatus
16. Leaf cells variously papillose or smooth, exothecial cells smooth ...................................................... 17
17. Laminal cells smooth......................................................................................................................................... 18
17. Laminal cells papillose ..................................................................................................................................... 20
18. Setae only 0.4–0.8 mm long; capsules usually immersed in upper leaves, urns 0.7–0.8 mm long; dioicous or rhizoautoicous............................................................................................... 47. F. subsessilis
18. Setae more than 2.0 mm long; capsules well exserted above the upper leaves, urns 0.4–0.65 mm long; autoicous...................................................................................................................................................... 19
19. Central strand not differentiated; upper leaves oblong-ovate, 1.2–1.5 mm long, acute or obtusely acute at apex; costa ending below the apex; vaginant laminae 2/34/5 the leaf length..................... 13. F. diversifolius
19. Central strand weakly differentiated; upper leaves lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 1.75–2.30 mm long, narrowly acute at apex; costa percurrent to shortly excurrent; vaginant laminae 1/22/3 the leaf length..............42. F. schusteri
20. Leaf cells with 1 (rarely 2) small papillae ............................................................................................... 21
20. Leaf cells pluripapillose............................................................................................................................. 22
21. Upper leaves oblong lanceolate, acute at apex; cells of apical laminae quadrate to hexagonal, 9–21 µm long, slightly mammillose with 1 (rarely 2) small, indistinct papillae, thin-walled.............. 43. F. schwabei
21. Upper leaves lanceolate, narrowly acute at apex; cells of apical laminae irregularly rounded hexagonal, 3.5–9.0 µm long, highly mammillose with 1 (rarely 2) distinct papillae, moderately thick-walled...... 10. F. crenulatus
22.  Setae more or less scabrous; perigonia in axils of leaves................................................ 24. F. hollianus
22. Setae always smooth; perigonia terminal on short branches at the base of female stems (if perigonia in axils of leaves, limbidia submarginal) .................................................................................................. 23
23. Leaves densely overlapping to base; upper leaves narrowly lanceolate or linear‑lanceolate ..................... 24
23. Leaves laxly arranged near base; upper leaves oblong‑lanceolate to lanceolate........................................... 26
24. Axillary hyaline nodules indistinct; limbidia weak, found only on lower half of vaginant laminae of upper and perichaetial leaves..................................................................... 31. F. linearis var. obscurirete
24. Axillary hyaline nodules well or weakly differentiated; limbidia found on vaginant laminae of almost every leaf ..................................................................................................................................................... 25
25. Axillary hyaline nodules well differentiated; rhizoautoicous; fertile and sterile stems differentiated and connected at base; setae terminal on short female stems................................................ 30. F. kinabaluensis
25. Axillary hyaline nodules weakly differentiated; autoicous; fertile and sterile stems not differentiated; setae terminal on stems............................................................................................................... 51. F. wichurae
 
26. Leaf cells highly mammillose, with a cluster of 2–5 high papillae at center............... 26. F. incognitus
26. Leaf cells not visibly mammillose, with papillae along the cell walls................................................... 27
27. Leaf apices acute; costa percurrent to shortly excurrent....................................................... 7. F. ceylonensis
27. Leaf apices rounded to obtuse; costa ending below leaf apex ....................................................................... 28
28. Vaginant laminae unequal; the minor laminae narrowed distally, ending on or very close to the costa; peristome teeth erect when wet, undivided or incompletely divided .............................. 18. F. gardneri
28. Vaginant laminae more or less equal; the minor laminae acute, ending on or very close to the leaf margins; peristome teeth inflexed when wet, divided more or less 2/3 their length ......... 33. F. minutus
29. Several rows of cells at margins of apical laminae lighter in color and smooth, markedly differentiated from inner cells as a paler band......................................................................................................................... 30
29. Marginal cells not as above, usually not differentiated from inner cells, or if differentiated, then only 1–2 rows of cells, or darker in color due to multi‑stratose cells ......................................................................... 31
30. Leaves lanceolate; costa percurrent, paler margins 3–4 cells wide; cross section of apical laminae 1–2 cells thick; setae 5–8 mm long............................................................................................. 14. F. dubius
30. Leaves narrowly lanceolate; costs excurrent, paler margins 1–3 cells wide; cross section of apical laminae 1 cell thick; setae not more than 2 mm long......................................................... 2. F. anomalus
31. Leaf margins dark in color, 2– 4 cells thick ................................................................................................... 32
31. Leaf margins not differentiated from other laminal cells .............................................................................. 34
32. Axillary hyaline nodules well differentiated; base of dorsal laminae rounded............. 28. F. javanicus
32. Axillary hyaline nodules not differentiated; base of dorsal laminae wedge‑shaped.............................. 33
33. Plants smaller, stems 8–11 mm long; leaf apices crenulate or nearly entire; leaf margins 2 cells thick; base of dorsal laminae not decurrent......................................................................... 29. F. jungermannioides
33. Plants larger, stems 18–60 mm long; leaf apices irregularly dentate; leaf margin 2–4 cells thick; base of dorsal laminae decurrent................................................................................................................. 34. F. nobilis
34. Plants aquatic; leaf bases distinctly decurrent on stems.......................................................................... 35
34. Plants not aquatic; leaf bases not distinctly decurrent on stems............................................................. 37
35. Leaves more or less crispate when dry; apical laminae 1 cell thick; costa clearly defined; with 1 row of irregularly quadrate to rectangular, smooth, more or less pellucid cells along both sides of costa............... 19. F. geminiflorus
35. Leaves almost straight when dry; apical laminae 1–6 cells thick; costa obscure; cells along both sides of costa not different from other laminal cells................................................................................................... 36
36. Leaves translucent under microscope; apical laminae 1–4 cells thick; two rows of rectangular guide cells visible through surface cells from middle to upper portion of costa............ 39. F. perdecurrens
36. Leaves not translucent under microscope; apical laminae 1–6 cells thick; two rows of guide cells not visible as above................................................................................................................ 21. F. grandifrons
37. Plants very small, leafy stems only 0.8–1.7 mm long; margins of vaginant laminae more or less distinctly serrate.................................................................................................................................................................. 38
37. Plants small to larger, leafy stems usually more than 3 mm long; margins of vaginant laminae almost entire to serrulate or crenulate.......................................................................................................................... 39
38. Margins of vaginant laminae evenly serrate; cells of apical laminae smooth.............. 15. F. flabellulus
38. Margins of vaginant laminae irregularly and sharply serrate; cells of apical laminae distinctly papillose......44. F. serratus
39. Axillary hyaline nodules very prominent.......................................................................................................... 40
39. Axillary hyaline nodules not well differentiated ............................................................................................. 42
40. Cells of apical laminae multipapillose......................................................................... 45. F. subangustus
40. Cells of apical laminae mammillose......................................................................................................... 41
41. Central strand not differentiated; leaf apices widely acute; costa percurrent or ending a few cells below apex
............................................................................................................................. 11a. F. crispulus var. crispulus
41. Central strand weakly differentiated; leaf apices narrowly acute; costa shortly excurrent..............................
........................................................................................................................... 11b. F. crispulus var. robinsonii
42. Cells of vaginant laminae with 3–4 papillae at corners ......................................... 49. F. teysmannianus
42. Cells of vaginant laminae not papillose at corners................................................................................... 43
43. Cells of apical laminae smooth or slightly mammillose................................................................................ 44
43. Cells of apical laminae papillose or distinctly mammillose.......................................................................... 49
44. Plants small; leafy stems 1.4–9.0 mm long.............................................................................................. 45
44. Plants medium‑sized to large; leafy stems 18.0–72.0 mm long ............................................................ 48
45. Costa ending 6–9 cells below the leaf apex................................................................. 22. F. guangdongensis
45. Costa percurrent to shortly excurrent............................................................................................................... 46
46. Costa usually curved above the vaginant laminae; the dorsal laminae slightly decurrent at the base; leaf cells rather thin‑walled............................................................................................... 17. F. ganguleei
46. Costa more or less straight above the vaginant laminae; the dorsal laminae not decurrent; leaf cells more or less thick-walled .......................................................................................................................... 47
47. Leaves lanceolate; cells of apical laminae moderately thick-walled, 10–24 µm long; synoicous (polyoicous)....................
............................................................................................................................................................. 38. F. pellucidus
47. Leaves lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; cells of apical laminae thick- to very thick-walled, lumen 8–13 µm long; dioicous...................................................................................................................... 9. F. crassinervis
48. Leaf apex mostly mucronate, rarely obtusely acute; cells of apical laminae 11–21µm long, walls clear............................................................................................................................................40. F. polypodioides
48. Leaf apex obtusely acute; cells of apical laminae 10–13 µm long, walls obscure......... 36. F. obscurus
49. Setae lateral or basal; perichaetial leaves much smaller than stem leaves............................. 48. F. taxifolius
49. Setae terminal; perichaetial leaves not or indistinctly differentiated............................................................ 50
50. Plants larger, leafy stems 10–50 mm long, 2.0–5.0 mm wide; costa percurrent........... 27. F. involutus
50. Plants smaller, leafy stems 3–7 mm long, 2.5–3.0 mm wide; costa usually ending a few cells below leaf apex ...................................................................................................................................................... 51
51. Leaf apices narrowly acute or obtuse to obtusely acute................................................................................. 52
51. Leaf apices widely acute, often mucronate ..................................................................................................... 53
52. Apices of dry leaves often enrolled towards the substrate; apical laminal cells 8–14 µm long ..............
.............................................................................................................. 35a. F. oblongifolius var. oblongifolius
52. Apices of dry leaves often enrolled away from the substrate; apical laminal cells 5–8 µm long.............
.................................................................................................................... 35b. F. oblongifolius var. hyophilus
53. Leaves lingulate to lanceolate; laminal cells distinctly mammillose, with indistinctly demarcated walls.....
......................................................................................................................23. F. gymnogynus
53. Leaves ovate‑oblong to ovate‑lanceolate; laminal cells more or less mammillose, with well demarcated walls...............................................................................................................37. F. osmundoides
 

Lower Taxa
 
 
 
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