3. Mnium Hedw. 提灯藓属 ti deng xian shu
Sp. Musc. Frond. 188. 1801. Bryum sect. Mnium (Hedw.) Arnott, Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 5: 278. 1827.
Plants slender, small, medium-sized to rather large, pale green to deep green with reddish color, often compact or in loose tufts. Stems erect, simple, rarely branched, with rhizoids at base. Leaves scale-like on the lower part of stems, becoming larger and forming rosettes toward the apex, oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, twisted or crisped when dry, spreading when moist; margins often bordered by one to several rows of narrower and thick-walled cells, single- or double-toothed; costae ending below the apex, percurrent to shortly excurrent; leaf cells mostly pentagonal to hexagonal, rarely quadrate or shortly rectangular, sometimes rounded, with walls often thickened at corners. Dioicous, rarely autoicous. Setae solitary, rarely clustered, elongate, thick, orange; capsules inclined to pendulous, rarely erect, usually elongate-ovoid, sometimes curved; opercula conic, rostrate; peristome double; exostome teeth reddish brown, lanceolate; endostome segments as long as the teeth, orange-red, lanceolate, often split; basal membrane high, ca. 1/2 the height of segments; cilia well developed, often nodulose. Spores large, green or yellow, roughened or coarsely papillose.