刺果藓科 ci-guo xian ke
by Si He & Lin Bang-juan
Plants small to large, to 20 cm long, dull to glossy, yellowish green, golden yellow to brownish red when older. Stems prostrate, irregularly pinnately branched to regularly bipinnately or tripinnately branched; leafy stems appressed or subcomplanate to complanate; pseudoparaphyllia none; central strand absent, cortical cells lax, thin-walled, epidermal cells thick-walled, substereid. Stem leaves and branch leaves similar or dimorphic, plane to deeply concave, sometimes undulate when dry, oval, ovate, oblong, oblong-ovate, oblong-lanceolate or lingulate; leaf apices truncate, rounded, obtuse, apiculate, or acute to acuminate; margins plane to slightly inflexed, finely serrulate to coarsely serrate above, serration nearly always formed by a row of slightly enlarged cells, subentire to entire below, not or narrowly decurrent at the base; costae double, unequal, extending to 1/2 total leaf length; apical leaf cells undifferentiated or conspicuously shorter than the adjacent cells; median cells linear, prorulose to strongly prorate; alar cells more or less differentiated, quadrate, subquadrate, or irregularly rectangular, thin- to thick-walled, of 3–5 rows of cells extending 3–6 cells up the margins. Axillary hairs brownish or hyaline, uniseriate, two- to (rarely) three-cells long, terminal cells larger. Brood bodies sometimes present in leaf axils, filamentous, uniseriate, papillose, of 12–24 quadrate cells, in dense, reddish brown clusters. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves typically sheathing at the base, suddenly narrowed from ovate to long acuminate to subulate acumens, laminal cells often thick-walled, porose, 2–3-costate (or costae occasionally absent). Setae 1.0–4.5 cm long, roughened to strongly papillose distally, smooth proximally; capsules suberect to erect, oblong-ovoid to cylindrical, symmetric to faintly asymmetrical, sparsely to densely echinate, spines to 150 µm long, formed as extensions of exothecial cell walls; exothecial cells subquadrate to elongate-rectangular, thin- to thick-walled, not collenchymatous; stomata present, immersed, few to numerous on the capsule neck; columella persistent, frequently extending beyond the mouth of capsules; annuli differentiated, of 3–5 rows of small, thick-walled, subquadrate to quadrate cells; opercula conic, apiculate to obliquely long rostrate, smooth to occasionally prickly papillose; peristome hygrocastique; exostome teeth 0.28–0.70 mm long; endostomial segments 0.10–0.36 mm long, sometimes strongly reduced; basal membrane 15–75 µm high. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth. Spores spherical, 13–20 µm in diameter, yellow to yellowish brown, finely to strongly papillose.