16. Pogonatum spinulosumMitt. 苞叶小金发藓 bao ye xiao jin fa xian
J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 8: 156. 1864. Polytrichum spinulosum (Mitt.) Broth., Hedwigia 38: 223. 1899. Type: Japan. Kiushu, Nagasaki, Oldham 426.
Pogonatumpellucens Besch., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 7, 17: 351. 1893.
Pogonatum spinulosum var. serricalyx Bartr., Ann. Bryol. 8: 21. 1936. Type: China. Guizhou, Fanjingshan, S.-Y. Cheo 646 (holotype FH).
Plants small, yellowish green, scattered over green, persistent protonemata in mats. Stems simple, ca. 2 mm long; rhizoids brown at the base of stems; central strand absent. Leaves small, yellowish brown, rarely with chloroplasts, appressed on stems when moist and dry, totally lacking lamellae; costa without complete stereid bands; basal leaves ovate, 1.0–1.5 mm × 0.4–0.9 mm, acuate or acuminate at apex, irregularly dentate or coarsely dentate near apex; costa vanishing near apex; middle leaves oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3.0–4.5 mm × 1.0–1.3 mm, acuminate at apex; margins entire; costa rigid, reddish brown, flexuously excurrent, densely coarsely dentate; leaf cells usually unistratose, sometimes bistratose, upper cells with conspicuous cuticular papillae. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves lanceolate or narrowly oblong, tapering to an obtuse apex, 8.0 mm × 1.2 mm; margins entire; costa shortly excurrent. Male plants very small, bud-like, only 6–8 scale-like leaves and 1–2 spherical antheridia. Setae erect, 2.0–4.5 cm long, often twisted; opercula conical, with short and straight beak; exothecial cells rectangular or hexagonal, ca. 3 µm in diameter, each cell with a conical mammilla; peristome teeth somewhat irregular, narrowly oblong or lanceolate, rounded or truncate at apex, sometimes shallowly bifid; membrane nearly as long as the teeth. Calyptrae 7–8 mm long, densely hairy. Spores smooth, ca. 11–12 µm in diameter.