1. Polytrichum commune Hedw. 金发藓 jin fa xian
Sp. Musc. Frond. 88. 1801. Type: Europe.
Polytrichum commune var. maximovickizii Lindb., Contr. Fl. Crypt. As. 224. 1872.
Polytrichum commune var. nigrescens Warnst., Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 41: 65. 1899.
Polytrichum subformosum Besch. var. yunnanense Thér., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, ser. 4, 709. f. 1–4. 1926. Type: China. Yunnan, Lou-ke-suin, E. Maire 41 (isotype PE).
Plants medium-sized to rather robust, 3–30(–45) cm high, dark green to reddish brown, rigid, in gregarious or scattered tufts. Stems mostly simple, with dense rhizoids at base. Leaves straight when dry, densely crowded on upper stems, scale-like at lower stems; upper leaves 7–12 mm long, lanceolate from a sheathing base; leaf margins sharply serrate; upper cells hexagonal or irregular, 7–12 µm wide, somewhat thick-walled; cells of sheathing base narrowly rectangular, 65–130 µm × 9–16 µm; costa broad, extending into a filiform acumen; ventral lamellae in 30–50 rows, 5–9 cells high; marginal cells of lamellae excavate, slightly broader than the cells below. Dioicous. Setae 4–8 cm long, rigid, reddish brown; capsules 2.5–5.0 mm long, 4-keeled, with a distinct apophyses and stomata at base of urns; exothecial cells usually projecting; opercula shortly beaked, deciduous; annuli differentiated; peristome teeth 64, 160–210 µm long, with thin membrane. Calyptrae cucullate, densely covered with golden cilia. Spores spherical, 9–12 µm in diameter, verrucose.