28. Dicranum undulatum Schrad. ex Brid. 皱叶曲尾藓 zhou-ye qu-wei xian
J. Bot. (Schrader) 1800(2): 294. 1801. Cecalyphum undulatum (Schrad. ex Brid.) P. de Beauv., Prodr. Aetheogam. 52. 1805. Dicranum sphagni var. undulatum (Schrad. ex Brid.) Wahlenb., F. Suec. (ed. 2) 2: 742. 1826. Type. Europe.
Dicranum bergeri Bland. in Sturm., Deutschl. Fl. (ed. 2) 2(6): 85. 1809.
Plants large, rather robust, (3–)5–12(–15) cm high, green or yellowish brown, not shiny or weakly shiny, in compact tufts. Stems erect, or ascending, simple or branched, densely foliate and moderately tomentose. Leaves in multi-rows, not much altered, or only slightly homomallous at the tips, contorted and slightly crispate when dry, erect-spreading or slightly secund when moist, oblong-lanceolate, 5–9 mm long, gradually narrowed from the middle to a linear-lanceolate, keeled, strongly undulate acumen, broadly acute or obtuse at the apex; margins plane or inflexed on one side at base, coarsely and irregularly serrate above the middle; costa slender to rather stout, occupying ca. 1/9–1/6 the leaf base width, subpercurrent to percurrent, ridged or serrate in 2 rows at back above, sometimes only roughened; upper cells short-rhomboidal, 12–25 µm × 5–8 µm, incrassate, rarely porose; basal cells elongate, rectangular, 70–95 µm × 4–7 µm, thick-walled, porose; alar cells short-rectangular, inflated, 40–60 µm × 20–35 µm, bistratose, incrassate. Dioicous. Male plants dwarfed. Setae single, straight, 2.0–2.5(–3.0) cm long, yellowish; capsules cylindric, 2.5–3.0 mm long, curved, asymmetric, inclined to horizontal, furrowed when dry and empty; not strumose; opercula obliquely long-rostrate, 2.0–3.0 mm long or longer; annuli in 2–3 rows of large, thin-walled cells, deciduous; peristome teeth 0.45 mm long, divided to the middle, reddish brown, faintly papillose above, vertically striolate below. Spores 16–23 µm in diameter, minutely papillose.