3. Diphyscium fulvifolium Mitt. 东亚短颈藓 dong ya duan jing xian
Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., 3: 193. 1891. Webera fulvifolia (Mitt.) Broth. Nat. Pflanzenfam. I(3): 664. 1904. Type: Japan. Kobe-kioto, Tokiado, Moseley s.n. (holotype NY; isotype BM).
Diphyscium fulvifolium var. leveillei Thér. in Broth., Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 38: 149. 1925.
Diphyscium rotundatifolium C.-K. Wang & S.-H. Lin, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 61: 526. f. 1–34. 1974. Type: China. Taiwan, Nantou, Luku Hsiang, Chitou, S.-H. Lin 1267 (holotype TUNGH).
Plants small to medium-sized, 4–15 mm high, often in clumps. Stems simple; in cross section central strand weakly differentiated or lacking. Leaves curled when dry, erect-spreading when moist, 3–8 mm × 0.6–1.0 mm, ligulate or linear-spathulate, usually rounded, mucronate to apiculate, rarely acute at apex; margins entire below, crenulate above, uni- to bistratose in cross section; costa usually percurrent, sometimes shortly excurrent, with two stereid bands; leaf cells unistratose at extreme base, bistratose in upper parts; median cells rounded to quadrate, 5–10 µm in diameter, pluripapillose; basal cells rectangular, 20–60 µm × 6–16 µm, hyaline, smooth. Axillary hairs 5–15 cells long. Dioicous. Male plants usually smaller than female plants. Perichaetia terminal; perichaetial leaves lanceolate, awn excurrent, papillose; margins entire at base, laciniate to ciliate at apex. Setae short, to 0.3 mm long; capsules oblong-ovoid, obliquely asymmetric, 3–5 mm × 0.9–2.0 mm, abruptly narrowed at base and mouth; exothecial cells collenchymatous; stomata usually superficial, near capsule mouth; annuli well differentiated, consisting of 1–3 rows of thick-walled cells; opercula conic, to 2 mm long, obtuse, smooth; peristome present. Calyptrae small, conic, smooth. Spores spherical, 8–12 µm in diameter, papillose.