4. Funaria japonica Broth. 日本葫芦藓 ri-ben hu-lu xian
Hedwigia 38: 216. 1899. Type. Japan: Kyushu, Pref. Nagasaki, Wichura 1411.
Funaria mutica Broth., Rev. Bryol., n.s., 2: 4. 1929. Syntypes. Japan: Kyushu, Hirotsu 1587; Taiwan: Shinchiku, Sasaoka 3832.
Plants slender, yellowish green to pale green, in loose tufts. Stems short, erect, simple, 3–5 mm long. Lower stem leaves smaller, ca. 1.5 mm long; upper stem leaves larger, 2–3 mm × 1.0–1.2 mm, oblong-ovate to oblong-obovate, flexuous or contorted when dry, erect-spreading when moist, acute at apex; margins entire below, serrulate above; costa slender, ending below leaf apex; leaf cells thin-walled, upper cells oblong-hexagonal to irregularly rectangular, 50–68 µm × 20–28 µm, marginal cells slightly differentiated, narrowly rectangular; basal cells rectangular, 60–105 µm × 25–48 µm. Autoicous. Setae elongate, 2.0–2.3 cm long, reddish brown; capsules suberect to inclined, pyriform, asymmetric, 1.6–2.0 mm × 0.8–1.2 mm, mouth narrowed, apophyses distinctly differentiated; opercula flat-conic, slightly apiculate; annuli none; peristome double; exostome teeth linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.35 mm long, reddish brown, distinctly trabeculate. Calyptrae not seen. Spores spherical, yellowish brown, 20–25 µm in diameter, densely papillose.