4. Campylopus flexuosus (Hedw.) Brid. 曲柄藓 qu-bing xian
Muscol. Recent. Suppl. 4: 71. 1819. Dicranum flexuosum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 145. 1801. Type. Germany: Dillenius s.n.
Plants small to large, 1–10 cm high, olive green or yellowish green, shiny, in dense tufts. Stems erect, or ascending, slightly curved, simple or branched, radiculose below; central strand present. Leaves flexuose when dry, erect-patent or slightly secund when moist, lanceolate, ca. 6 mm long, gradually narrowed to a subulate, denticulate apex; margins plane, entire or only serrulate at the apex; costa occupying ca. ½ the leaf base width, and 2/3 the upper leaf width, excurrent in a concolorous point, smooth or slightly roughened, not ridged at back in the upper part, with only dorsal stereid band in transverse section; upper cells quadrate to short-rectangular or slightly oblique; basal cells rectangular, thick-walled, forming 1–2 rows of narrower cells at the margins; alar cells forming well marked auricles, inflated, often brownish. Dioicous. Sporophytes not seen.