2. Hylocomiastrum pyrenaicum (Spruce) Fleisch. ex Broth. 星塔藓 xing ta xian
Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2), 11: 487. 1925. Hylocomium pyrenaicum (Spruce) Lindb., Musci Scand. 37. 1879. Hypnum pyrenaicum Spruce, Musci Pyren. 4. 1847. Type: Europe.
Hylocomium pyrenaicum var. brachythecioides Card., Bull. Soc. Bot. Genève, ser. 2, 5: 324. 1913.
Plants usually robust, up to 10 cm long, stiff, green, deeply green to brownish green, often glossy, forming patches. Secondary stems mostly erect-spreading, irregularly branched, often robust, round, with slender piliform branches; central strand present, with epidermal cells thick-walled; rhizoids few; paraphyllia branched, sometimes delicate, with short cells, gradually forming piliform apices. Stem leaves differentiated from branch leaves; stem leaves broadly ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2 mm × 1 mm, slightly concave, rarely plicate; leaf margins sometimes serrate, slightly decurrent at base; costa single, strong, reaching the upper part of lamina; median leaf cells irregularly elongated, 30–35 µm × 4.5–5.5 µm, often prorate; basal cells somewhat shorter and wider, alar cells slightly inflated; branch leaves smaller, ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1.2 mm × 0.4 mm, slightly elongate at apex; costa single, strong, mostly reaching the upper part of lamina. Dioicous. Inner perichaetial leaves ca. 1.7 mm long, costae absent, not plicate. Setae slender and elongate, 1.5–3 cm long, brownish red; capsules ovoid, ca. 1.5 mm × 1.1 mm, usually erect-spreading; exothecial cells slightly incrassate; annuli not differentiated; opercula conic, shortly rostrate; peristome double; exostome teeth orange yellow, narrowly lanceolate, ca. 0.55 mm long, trabeculate on outer surface, cross-striate or irregularly reticulate among trabeculae, finely papillose above; endostome segments as high as the exostome teeth, lanceolate, light yellowish, perforated along median line, more or less smooth; basal membrane high; cilia 1–3. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth. Spores spherical, 12–16 µm in diameter, finely papillose.