5. Splachnum vasculosum Hedw. 壶藓 hu xian
Sp. Musc. Frond. 53. 1801. Type. Europe.
Splachnum rugosum Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit. 4: 3. 10 f. 7. 1801.
Plants small to medium-sized, 1–2 cm high, green to yellowish green, in loose or dense tufts. Stems erect, not branched or rarely branched, with numerous rhizoids at base. Leaves sparse, contorted when dry, smaller below, larger toward stem tips, obovate, distinctly constricted at base, bluntly or sharply acuminate at apex, the upper leaves usually slenderly acuminate; margins entire or only indistinctly serrulate near leaf apex; costa ending below leaf apex from the lower leaves, percurrent to shortly excurrent in the upper leaves; upper leaf cells larger, lax, hexagonal, thin-walled; lower cells shortly rectangular. Dioicous. Setae 2–5 cm long, reddish brown, glossy; capsules with shortly cylindrical urns, yellowish brown, apophyses globose, much broader than the urns (usually ca. three times broader), dark purple; opercula bluntly convex, often falling with columella attached when mature; annuli none; peristome teeth united in pairs, reflexed when dry. Calyptrae not seen. Spores maturing in late spring or early summer.