1. Palustriella commutata (Hedw.) Ochyra 长叶沼地藓 chang ye zhao di xian
J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 67: 224. 1989. Cratoneuron commutatum (Hedw.) G. Roth, Hedwigia 38 (Beibl.): 6. 1899. Amblystegium commutatum (Hedw.) De Not., Comment. Soc. Crittog. Ital. 2: 291. 1867. Stereodon commutatus (Hedw.) Mitt., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 8: 43. 1864. Hypnum commutatum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 284. 1801. Type: Austria.
Plants slender to rather robust, soft, bright to dark green, yellowish, or brownish, not glossy, often encrusted with lime below, in loose or dense mats, or cushions. Stems stiff, erect or ascending, sometimes procumbent or floating, often complanate, plumose, pinnately or irregularly branched, often densely tomentose; central strand absent or weakly differentiated; paraphyllia numerous, unbranched, filiform or uniseriate, or filimentous to linear-lanceolate, serrate or dentate at margins; pseudoparaphyllia few. Stem leaves often sparsely foliate, erect-spreading, falcate-secund, strongly plicate, triangular-cordate or deltoid to ovate-lanceolate, gradually or somewhat abruptly acuminate at apex, decurrent at base; margins plane or slightly recurved at base, serrulate below, nearly entire above; costae single, strong, ending in leaf acumen or nearly percurrent; median leaf cells elongate-rhomboidal, 50–80 µm × 6–8 µm, smooth or sometimes prorate, thin-walled to somewhat incrassate; apical cells shorter, becoming shorter, broader below; alar cells enlarged, lax, hyaline, yellowish, or brownish, extending close to costa at leaf base, often forming decurrent auricles; branch leaves shorter, narrower, similar to stem leaves in shape, usually homomallous, ovate-lanceolate, long acuminate. Dioicous. Inner perichaetial leaves ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a long, often squarrose acumen, distinctly ciliate at margins; costae single. Setae elongate, 25–40 mm long, smooth; capsules more or less horizontal, ellipsoidal to shortly cylindrical, symmetric or somewhat asymmetric, strongly curved, constricted below the mouth; opercula low-conic; annuli weakly differentiated, in 1–2 rows of small, thick-walled cells; peristome double; exostome teeth 16, lanceolate, densely cross-striolate below, finely papillose above, moderately bordered; endostome segments 16, linear-lanceolate, as long as or somewhat shorter than the teeth, keeled, narrowly perforate, slightly papillose; basal membrane high; cilia 2–3, long, nodulose. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth. Spores spherical, 12–25 µm in diameter, roughened or finely papillose.