1. Bidens alba
(L.) DC. var. radiata (Sch. Bip.) Ballard
B. pilosa L. var. radiata (Sch. Bip.) J.A.
Pl. 265 e, f;
terrestrial, with taproots. Stems 30–150 cm, erect or ascending, the
upper portion usually 4-angled, glabrous (sparsely hairy elsewhere). Leaves all
more or less similar, short- to long-petiolate, opposite, the blade
2–10 cm long, mostly broadly ovate to ovate-triangular in outline,
deeply 1 time ternately or pinnately divided or compound into
3–5(–7) segments or leaflets, these lanceolate to ovate, angled
or short-tapered (rarely rounded to shallowly cordate) to a stalked or
stalklike, winged base, tapered to a sharply pointed tip, the margins sharply toothed,
the surfaces glabrous or the undersurface sparsely short-hairy, especially
along the veins. Inflorescences of solitary terminal heads or appearing in
loose, open clusters, the heads radiate, not nodding at fruiting. Involucre
with the outer series of 8–12 bracts 2–5 mm long, ascending to
loosely ascending, narrowly oblong to oblanceolate, the margins with spreading
hairs, the outer surface glabrous or sparsely short-hairy; the inner series of
7–13 bracts 4–7 mm long, lanceolate to oblong-oblanceolate, inconspicuously
pubescent with short, appressed hairs. Chaffy bracts narrowly oblong, usually
purplish-tinged at the tip. Ray florets present, 5–8, the corolla
showy, 7–15 mm long, white. Disc florets 20–40(–80),
the corollas 3–5 mm long, yellow. Pappus absent or more commonly of 2
or 3 awns 2–4 mm long, these with downward-pointed barbs, usually erect
at fruiting. Fruits 4–12 mm long, linear, more or less flattened (outer
florets) or 4-angled (inner florets) in cross-section, not winged, the faces
each with a pair of longitudinal grooves, reddish brown to black, with short,
upward angled, usually pustular-based hairs. 2n=48.
known thus far only from a single collection from the city of St. Louis
(southwestern U.S. and Florida; Mexico, Central America, South America,
Caribbean Islands; introduced sporadically farther north in the U.S., also
Canada, Europe, Asia, Africa). Railroads.
This species was
first reported for Missouri by Mühlenbach (1979, as B. pilosa). The present
work follows the careful study by Ballard (1986), who separated B. alba, B.
odorata, and B. pilosa based on a suite of subtle morphological
characters, differences in ploidy, and phytochemistry. True B. pilosa
tends to have fewer outer-series involucral bracts, absent or inconspicuous ray
florets, and fewer pappus awns, among other differences, and also is a
hexaploid (2n=72) taxon.