A World-wide Phylogenetic Classification of Poaceae (Gramineae): căo (草), capim, çayır, çimen, darbha, ghaas, ghas, gish, gramas, graminius, gräser, grasses, gyokh, he-ben-ke, hullu, kasa, kusa, nyasi, pastos, pillu, pullu, zlaki, etc.

R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras, O. Morrone† & K. Romaschenko

First published 13 Jan. 2000 as Classification of New World Grasses (Poaceae/Gramineae). Data are under continuous revision after this time. This page last revised 3 Apr 2015 (previous significant revisions/updates, 11 Dec 2013, 13 Dec 2011, Apr 2012, 8 Aug 2012, 18 Oct 2012, 5 Apr 2014).

http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?pagename=ClassificationNWG&projectid=10

The following classification was initiated for the Catalogue of New World Grasses project. It now includes subfamilies (12), supertribes (6), tribes (51), subtribes (80), and accepted genera for the World. Synonyms of suprageneric taxa, and synonyms of genera that are frequently recognized as distinct, are also cited. Strictly Old World suprageneric taxa have now been united in the main classification arrangement (as of 2011 for all subfamilies).

Our classification builds on those of Clayton & Renvoize (1986), Tzvelev (1976, 1989), Watson & Dallwitz (1992), Grass Phylogeny Working Group (2001), for Bambuseae and allies, Soderstrom & Ellis (1987), and for New World Poaceae, the four volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (2000-2003, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46 & 48),  all those that have gone before, and many newer works including, for Paniceae (Morrone et al. 2012), Bambusoideae (BPG: Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2012), Chloridoideae (Peterson et al. 2010, 2012), Danthonioideae (Linder et al. 2010), Stipeae (Romaschenko et al. 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013).

Our classification was published separately on 23 March 2015 in the Journal of Systemtics and Evoulution: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1111/jse.12150

Much of our revision results from many DNA phylogenetic studies over the last 24 years. Genera in italic have been sampled in DNA studies. For bibliographic references see http://www.tropicos.org/ReferenceSearch.aspx Advanced Search – Key Words: “Poaceae, DNA”.

All suprageneric taxa and genera are recorded in Tropicos with their original place of publication and authorships (http://www.tropicos.org/Home.aspx). Supergeneric taxa (and others) can be listed in Tropicos using the Advanced Search options under http://www.tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx. A number of older legitimate citations of place and author, and newly recognized groups, and invalid, illegitimate, and unranked names, have been detected since the publication of Genera Graminum (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986). Much work has been done in evaluating the pre-1900 suprageneric nomenclature literature, especially by Jim Reveal (recently, several tribe names were upset by the rediscovery of tribe names by Martinov, 1820, but further evaluation of the original text [microform copy, US!] revealed these were mostly published as orders [=family] and are invalid as they were placed within family Gramineae). For suprageneric taxa accepted as legitimate by Jim Reveal see [http://www.plantsystematics.org/reveal/pbio/WWW/supragen.html].

Also, Reveal (IBC 2011) passed an emendation to our nomenclatural code allowing rank terminations (if consistent with oidea, eae and inae ranking for subfamily, tribe and subtribe) to determine rank, even if rank was not stated, to extend back to 1887 (previously, the cutoff was 1 Jan 1908; Art. 35.2). We’ve not had time to evaluate the impact of this change for Poaceae. Also, authorship of names of suprageneric taxa transferred from one rank to another no longer include the original authors (parenthetically), even if the transfer would be invalid without the acknowledged basis. In the latter situation we consider such transfers as replacing names (nom. novs.), otherwise the place of validation gets lost. This is not done if a suprageneric ranked name is valid and effective in its own right.

 

A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the family Poaceae Barnhart [1895] (nom. alt.:  Gramineae Juss. [1789]). Accepted suprageneric names appear in bold type. The indigenous range of each genus is colored as follows:  Western Hemisphere, Eurasia (including genera that in Africa are exclusively Mediterranean), Australasia, Africa. Genera with bimodal distributions are bicolored, those with broader distributions tricolored, or are red if more widely distributed. Genera in synonymy (syn. – …..) are colored if the accepted genus is more widely distributed, i.e., in more than one area. Genera in italics have been sampled in DNA studies. Comments are in brackets { }. Publication dates for suprageneric taxa appear in square brackets [ ].

________________________________________________________________________________________

fam. Poaceae Barnhart [1895] (nom. alt.: Gramineae Juss. [1789]!)

 

subfam. Anomochlooideae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957] (syn. – Streptochaetoideae Butzin [1965]):

 

tribe Anomochloeae C.E. Hubb. [1934]:  Anomochloa.

 

tribe Streptochaeteae C.E. Hubb. [1934]:  Streptochaeta.

 

 

subfam. Pharoideae L.G. Clark & Judz. [1996] (syn. – Leptaspidoideae C.O. Morales [1998], supertribe Pharoidae L. Liu [1980]):

 

tribe Phareae Stapf [1898] (syn. – Leptaspideae Tzvelev [1987]):  Leptaspis, Pharus, Scrotochloa.

 

 

subfam. Puelioideae L.G. Clark, M. Kobay, S. Mathews, Spangler & E.A. Kellogg [2000]:

 

tribe Atractocarpeae Jacq.-Fél. ex Tzvelev [1987 Mar-Sep] (syn. – Atractocarpeae Jacq.-Fél. [1962, nom. inval.], Puelieae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [“1987” March 1988], subtribe Atractocarpinae E. Camus [1913], Puelliinae Stapf [1917]):  Puelia (syn. – Atractocarpa).

 

tribe Guaduellieae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987]:  Guaduella.

 

 

“BOP” clade {Clark et al., 1995; Clark et al., 2000, as BEP}

 

 

subfam. Oryzoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. – Ehrhartoideae Caro [1982], Oryzoideae Caro [1982, isonym]; Ehrhartinae Link [1827, unranked], Oryzeae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]):

 

            incertae sedis:  Suddia {probably Phyllorachideae}.

 

tribe Streptogyneae C. E. Hubb. ex C. E. Calderón & Soderstr. [1980] (syn. – Streptogyneae C.E. Hubb. [1956, nom. inval.]; subtribe Streptogyninae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]):  Streptogyna.

 

tribe Ehrharteae Nevski [1937]:  Ehrharta, Microlaena, Tetrarrhena, Zotovia.

 

tribe Oryzeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Zizanieae Hitchc. [1920]):

 

subtribe Oryzinae Griseb. [1853]:  Leersia, Oryza (syn. – Porteresia).

 

subtribe Zizaniinae Benth. [1881] (syn. – subtribe Luziolinae Terrell & H. Rob. [1974]): Chikusichloa, Hygroryza, Luziola, Maltebrunia, Potamophila (syn. – Maltebrunia?), Prosphytochloa, Rhynchoryza, Zizania, Zizaniopsis.

 

tribe Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb. [1939] {may be better in Oryzeae as a subtribe}:  Humbertochloa, Phyllorachis.

 

 

subfam. Bambusoideae Luerss. [1893] (syn. – Olyroideae Pilg. [1956], Parianoideae Butzin [1965]):

 

supertribe Arundinarodae L. Liu [1980]:

 

tribe Arundinarieae Asch. & Graebn. [1902] (syn. – Chimonocalameae Keng f. [1982, nom. inval.], Shibataeeae Nakai [1933]):

 

subtribe Arundinariinae Nees ex Lindl. [1836] (syn. – Aruninariinae Benth. [1881, isonym], Hack. [1887, isonym], Phyllostachydinae Keng f. [1992], Pleioblastinae Keng & Keng f. [1959], Sasinae Keng. f. [1992], Shibataeinae (Nakai) Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987], Sinobambusinae Z.B. Wang [1987], Thamnocalaminae Keng. f. [1992]):  Acidosasa, Ampelocalamus, Arundinaria, Bashania, Bergbambos, Chimonobambusa (syn. –Menstruocalamus), Chimonocalamus, Drepanostachyum, Fargesia (syn. – Borinda, Sinarundinaria), Ferrocalamus, Gaoligonshania, Gelidocalamus, Himalayacalamus, Indocalamus (s.s.), Indosasa, Kuruna, Oldeania, Oligostachyum, Phyllostachys, Pleioblastus, Pseudosasa, Sarocalamus, Sasa, Sasaella, Sasamorpha, Semiarundinaria(syn. – Brachystachym), Shibataea, Sinobambusa, Thamnocalamus s.s, Vietnamocalamus, Yushania.

 

supertribe Bambusoidae L. Liu [1980]:

 

tribe Olyreae Kunth ex Spenn. [1825] (syn. – supertribe Olyrodae L. Liu [1980]; tribes Buergersiochloeae S.T. Blake [1946], Parianeae C.E. Hubb. [1934]).

 

subtribe Buergersiochloinae L.G. Clark & Judz [2007]:  Buergersiochloa.

 

subtribe Olyrinae Kromb. [1875]:  Agnesia, Arberella, Cryptochloa, Diandrolyra, Ekmanochloa, Froesiochloa, Lithachne, Maclurolyra, Mniochloa, Olyra, Parodiolyra, Piresiella, Raddia, Raddiella, Rehia, Reitzia (syn. – Piresia), Sucrea.

 

subtribe Parianinae Hack. [1887]:  Eremitis, Pariana, Parianella.

 

tribe Bambuseae Kunth ex Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Arthrostylidieae E. Camus [1913], Baccifereae E. Camus [1913, nom. inval.], Chusqueae E. Camus [1913], Hickelieae A. Camus [1935, nom. inval.], Oxytenanthereae Tzvelev [1987]):

 

subtribe Melocanninae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Schizostachydinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987]): Cephalostachyum, Davidsea, Dendrochloa, Melocanna, Neohouzeaua, Ochlandra, Pseudostachyum, Schizostachyum (syn. – Leptocanna), Stapletonia, Teinostachyum.

 

subtribe Hickeliinae A. Camus [1924] (syn. – Nastinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987]):  Cathariostachys, Decaryochloa, Hickelia (syn. – Pseudocoix), Hitchcockella, Nastus (syn. –Oreiostachys), Perrierbambus, Sirochloa, Valiha.

 

subtribe Bambusinae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Dendrocalaminae Benth. [1881]):  Bambusa (syn. –Dendrocalamopsis, Neosinocalamus), Bonia, Cyrtochloa, Dendrocalamus (syn. –Klemachloa, Sinocalamus), Dinochloa, Fimbribambusa, Gigantochloa, Greslania, Holttumochloa, Kinabaluchloa, Maclurochloa, Melocalamus, Mullerochloa, Nianhochloa, Neololeba, Neomicrocalamus, Oreobambos, Oxytenanthera (syn. –Houzeaubambus?), Parabambusa, Phuphanochloa, Pinga, Pseudobambusa, Pseudoxytenanthera, Soejatmia, Sphaerobambos, Temburongia, Temochloa, Thrysostachys, Vietanamosasa.

 

subtribe Racemobambosinae Stapleton [1984]:  Racemobambos s.s.

 

subtribe Chusqueinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987] (syn. – Neurolepidinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987]):  Chusquea (syn. – Neurolepis, Platonia, Rettbergia, Swallenochloa).

 

subtribe Guaduinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987]:  Apoclada, Eremocaulon (syn. – Criciuma), Guadua, Olmeca, Otatea.

 

subtribe Arthrostylidiinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987]:  Actinocladum, Alvimia, Arthrostylidium, Athroostachys, Atractantha, Aulonemia (syn. – Colanthelia, Matudacalamus), Cambajuva, Didymogonyx, Elytrostachys, Filgueirasia, Glaziophyton, Merostachys, Myriocladus, Rhipidocladum.

 

 

subfam. Pooideae Benth. [1861] (syn. – Secaloideae Rouy [1913]; Agrostidoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833]; Hordeaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Phalarideae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Stipaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]):

 

tribe Brachyelytreae Ohwi [1941] (syn. – Brachyelytrinae Ohwi [1942]):  Brachyelytrum.

 

tribe Nardeae W.D.J. Koch. [1837] (syn. – subtribe Nardinae Kromb. [1875]) {sister to Lygeeae}: Nardus.

 

tribe Lygeeae J. Presl [1846] (syn. – Lygeinae Röser [2009], Spartineae Trin. [1824, nom. inval, based on Lygeum]) {sister to Nardeae}:  Lygeum.

 

tribe Phaenospermateae Renvoize & Clayton [1985] (syn. – Duthieeae Röser & Jul.Schneider [2011], subtribe Duthieinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]):  Anisopogon, Danthoniastrum, Duthiea s.s. (s.l., syn.– Triavenopsis), Metcalfia, Phaenosperma, Pseudodanthonia, Sinochasea, Stephanachne (syn. –Pappagrostis).

 

tribe Brylkinieae Tateoka [1960] {sister to Meliceae, may be better in Meliceae as subtribe} (syn. –Brylkiniinae Ohwi [1941]):  Brylkinia, Koordersiochloa (syn. – Streblochaete) {placement within Meliceae s.s. is doubtful, due to presence of cylindrical to lanceoloid (non-globose) styles, punctiform hilum}.

 

tribe Meliceae Link ex Endl. [1830] (syn. – Glycerieae Link ex Endl. [1830] {sister to Brylkinieae}; subtribe Glyceriinae Dumort. [1829], Melicinae Fr. [1835]):  Glyceria, Lycochloa, Melica, Pleuropogon, Schizachne, Triniochloa.

 

tribe Ampelodesmeae Tutin [1978] (syn. – Ampelodesminae Conert [1961]):  Ampelodesmos {apparently an ancient hybrid between parents from Stipeae and Phaenospermateae; see Romaschenko et al., 2012}.

 

tribe Stipeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – supertribe Stipodae L. Liu [1980]; subtribe Stipinae Griseb. [1846]; Aciachninae Caro [1982], Ortachninae Caro [1982]):  Achnatherum {Eurasian/African, syn. –Aristella; Western Hemisphere species are in limbo, none belong in Achnatherum s.s, most are Eriocoma but not yet transferred}, Aciachne, Amelichloa {nested within Nassella, but an intergeneric hybrid origin has not been ruled out}, Anatherostipa (syn. – Nicoraella), Anemanthele, Austrostipa, Celtica, Eriocoma {incl. most American spp. of Achnatherum}, Hesperostipa, Jarava, Lorenzochloa, Macrochloa, Nassella, Oloptum, Ortachne, Orthoraphium, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, Piptochaetium, Piptatheropsis, Piptatherum, Psammochloa, Ptilagrostis, Stipa, Stipellula (Stipella nom. illeg. hom.), Timouria, Trikeraia.

 

tribe Diarrheneae C.S. Campb. [1985] (syn. – subtribe Diarrheninae Ohwi [1941]):  Diarrhena, Neomolinia.

 

tribe Brachypodieae Harz [1880] (syn. – subtribe Brachypodiinae Hack. [1887]; Brachypodieae Hayek [1925, isonym]):  Brachypodium (syn. – Trachynia).

 

supertribe Poodae L. Liu [1980] (syn. – Poodae T.D. Macfarl. & L. Watson [1982], isonym):

 

tribe Poeae R.Br. [1814] (syn. – Agrostideae Martinov [1820] {as Koleno = tribe, indirect ref. to Kunth}, Agrostidieae Dumort. [1824], Airopsideae Gren. & Godr. [1855], Alopecureae W.D.J. Koch[1837], Anthoxantheae Link ex Endl. [1830], Aveneae Dumort. [1824], Beckmannieae Nevski [1937], Calamagrostideae Trin. [1824], Cinneae Ohwi [1941], Coleantheae Husn. [1896], Cynosureae Dumort. [1824], Dupontieae A. Löve & D. Löve, [1961, nom. nud.], Festuceae Dumort. [1824], Gaudinieae Rouy [1913], Graphephoreae (Asch. & Graebn.) Hyl. [1953], Hainardieae Greuter [1967], Holceae J. Presl [1846], Lolieae Link ex Endl. [1830], Koelerieae Schur [1866, nom. nud.], Milieae Link ex Endl. [1830], Phalarideae Kunth [1829], Phleeae Dumort. [1824], Scolochloeae Tzvelev [1968], Seslerieae W.D.J. Koch [1837], Triseteae Gren. & Godr. [1855], Vilfeae Trin. [1824]):

 

Poeae CHLOROPLAST GROUP 1 (Aveneae type):

 

subtribe Torreyochloinae Soreng [2003]:  Amphibromus, Torreyochloa.

 

subtribe Aveninae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Gaudiniinae Holub ex Tzvelev [1976, nom. nud.], Graphephorinae Asch. & Graebn. [1900], Koeleriinae Asch. & Graebn. [1900]): Arrhenatherum, Avellinia, Avena, Gaudinia, Graphephorum, Helictotrichon s.s. (syn. –Pseudarrhenathrum; excl. Avenula, Helictochloa), Koeleria (syn. – Parafestuca), Lagurus, Leptophyllochloa, Peyritschia, Rostraria, Sphenopholis, Trisetaria, Tricholemma, Trisetum.

 

subtribe Phalaridinae Fr. [1835]:  Phalaris.

 

subtribe Anthoxanthinae A. Gray [1856] (syn. – Foenodorinae Krause [1909, nom. inval.]): Anthoxanthum (syn. – Ataxia, Hierochloe).

 

subtribe Brizinae Tzvelev s.s. [1968]:  Airopsis, Briza (syn. – Macrobriza; excl. Brizochloa).

 

subtribe Calothecinae Soreng [2015]:  Chascolytrum (syn. – Calotheca, Erianthecium, Gymnachne, Lombardochloa, Microbriza, Poidium, Rhombolytrum), Relchela.

 

subtribe Agrostidinae Fr. [1835] (syn. – Chaeturaceae Link [1827, unranked], Calamagrostidinae Lindl. [1836, nom. nud.], Vilfinae Steud. [1954]):  Agrostis, Ammophila, Ancistragrostis, Bromidium, Calamagrostis p.p. (syn. – Deyeuxia) {polyphyletic, p.p, in Western Hemisphere}, Chaetopogon, Dichelachne, Echinopogon, Hypseochloa, Gastridium, Lachnagrostis, Limnodea, Pentapogon, Podagrostis, Polypogon, Triplachne.

 

Poaeae CHLOROPLAST GROUP 2 (Poeae type):

 

incertae sedis:  Avenula (syn. – Homalotrichon) {s.s., p.p. typica – A. pubescens; excl. Helictochloa.  Avenula s.s. is a floater, probably allied to the set of Coleanthinae, Poinae s.l., and Miliinae}.

 

subtribe Scolochloinae Tzvelev [1987] (syn. – subtribe Scolochloeae Tzvelev [1968]):  Dryopoa, Scolochloa {this subtribe seems to share plastids with the classical Poeae and nrDNA with early GROUP 1 above}.

 

subtribe Sesleriinae Parl. [1845] (syn. – subtribe Miborinae Asch. & Graebn. [1899]):  Mibora, Echinaria, Oreochloa, Sesleria, Sesleriella {this subtribe seems to share plastids with the old Poeae and nrDNA with early Aveninae GROUP 1 above}.

 

subtribe Coleanthinae Rouy [1913] (syn. – Puccinelliinae Soreng & Davis [2003]):  Catabrosa, Catabrosella, Coleanthus, Colpodium (syn. – Keniochloa), Hyalopoa {apparently heterogenous}, Paracolpodium {apparently heterogenous}, Phippsia, Puccinellia (syn. –Pseudosclerochloa), Sclerochloa, Zingeria {probably best united with Colpodium s.s.}.

 

subtribe Miliinae Dumort. [1829] {possibly part of Poinae s.l, possibly sister to Poa or Phleum}: Milium.

 

subtribe Poinae Dumort. s.l. [1829] (syn. – subtribe Alopecurinae Dumort. [1829]; Beckmanniinae Nevski [1937], Cinninae Caruel. [1892], Gramininae Krause [1909, nom. inval.], Phleinae Dumort. [1868], Phleinae Benth. [1881, isonym], Ventenatinae Holub [1958, nom. nud.; Tzvelev, 1976, nom. inval., without Latin]):  Agrostopoa, Alopecurus, Aniselytron, Apera, Arctagrostis, Arctophila, Beckmannia, Bellardiochloa, Brizochloa? {usually placed in Briza}, Cinna, Cornucopiae, Cyathopus, Dupontia, Dupontiopsis, Gaudiniopsis, Hookerochloa (syn. – Festucella), Limnas, Nephelochloa, Nicoraepoa {hybrids with Poa are known}, Parvotrisetum, Phleum (syn. – Maillea), Pholiurus, Poa (syn. – Anthochloa, Aphanelytrum, Austrofestuca, Dissanthelium, Eremopoa, Libyella, Lindbergella, Neuropoa, Oreopoa, Parodiochloa, Tovarochloa, Tzvelevia), Pseudophleum, Rhizocephalus, Saxipoa, Simplicia, Sylvipoa, Ventenata.

 

subtribe Airinae Fr. [1835] (syn. – Corynephorinae subtrib V. Jirásek & Chrtek) {a heterogenous subtribe with no satisfactory resolution}:  Aira, Antinoria, Avenella, Corynephorus, Helictochloa {incl. Avenula p.p. non-typica, A. subg. Pratavenastrum}, Molineriella, Periballia.

 

subtribe Holcinae Dumort. [1868] (syn. – Deschampsinae Holub [1958, nom. nud.], Aristaveninae F. Albers & Butzin [1977], Scribneriinae Soreng [2003]):  Deschampsias.s. (syn. – Scribneria) {excl. Avenella; possibly better as its own tribe}, Holcus, Vahlodea.

 

subtribe Loliinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Festucinae J. Presl [1830], Psilurinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]):  Castellia, Drymochloa, Festuca (syn. – Ctenopsis, Dielsiochloa, Hellerochloa, Loliolum, Micropyrum, Narduroides, Psilurus, Vulpia, Wangenheimia), Leucopoa (syn. –Xanthochloa), Lolium (syn. – Micropyropsis, Schedonorus), Megalachne, Patzkea, Podophorus, Pseudobromus {the latter seems odd here. DNA data show a long branch, but outgroup selection has not clarified its placement}.

 

subtribe Dactylidinae Stapf [1898]:  Dactylis, Lamarckia.

 

subtribe Cynosurinae Fr. [1835]:  Cynosurus.

 

subtribe Ammochloinae Tzvelev [1976]:  Ammochloa.

 

subtribe Parapholiinae Caro [1982] (syn. – Monerminae Tzvelev [1987, nom. inval.]):  Agropyropsis, Catapodium, Cutandia, Desmazeria, Hainardia, Parapholis, Sphenopus, Vulpiella.

 

supertribe Triticodae T.D. Macfarl. & L. Watson [1982]:

 

tribe Littledaleeae Soreng & J.I. Davis [2015] (syn. – Littledaleinae Röser [2009]:  Littledalea {this isolated genus appears to be the sister to Bromeae plus Triticeae}.

 

tribe Bromeae Dumort. [1824]:  Bromus (syn. – Anisantha, Boissiera, Bromopsis, Ceratochloa, Nevskiella, Stenofestuca, Trisetobromus).

 

tribe Triticeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Aegilopineae Orb. [1841], Hordeeae Kunth ex Spenn. [1825], Frumenteae Krause [1903, nom. illeg.], Secaleinae Rchb. [1828, unranked]):

 

subtribe Hordeinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Elyminae Benth. [1881], Agropyrinae Nevski[1933], Clinelyminae Nevski [1933, nom. illeg.], Roegneriinae Nevski [1933], Henrardiinae C.E. Hubb. [1948]):  Agropyron, Anthosachne, Australopyrum, Connorochloa, Crithopsis, Douglasdewya, Elymus (syn. – Campeiostachys, Elytrigia, Hystrix, Roegneria, Sitanion), Eremopyrum, Festucopsis, Henrardia, Heteranthelium, Hordelymus, Hordeum (syn. – Critesion), Kengyilia, Leymus (syn. – Aneurolepidium, Eremium, Macrohystrix, Microhystrix), Pascopyrum, Peridictyon, Psathyrostachys, Pseudoroegneria, Secale, Stenostachys, Taeniatherum.

 

subtribe Triticinae Fr. [1835] (syn. – Aegilopinae Nevski [1933]):  Aegilops, Amblyopyrum, Dasypyrum, Thinopyrum, Triticum.

 

 

 

“PACMAD” clade {Sánchez-Ken & Clark, 2010; also known as PACC (Davis & Soreng, 1993), PACCAD (GPWG, 2001), or PACCMAD (Sánchez-Ken et al. 2007)}

 

 

subfam. Aristidoideae Caro [1982] {sister to rest of PACMAD}:

 

tribe Aristideae C.E. Hubb. [1960]:  Aristida, Sartidia, Stipagrostis.

 

 

subfam. Panicoideae A. Braun [1864] (syn. − Andropogonoideae Rouy [1913], Centothecoideae Soderst. [1981]; Andropogineae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Paniceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Paniceae Link [1827, unranked], Rottboellaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]):

 

incertae sedis:  Chandrasekharania {C3 }, Jansenella {C3} {both genera were treated in Arundinellae by Clayton & Renvoize, 1986}.

 

tribe Thysanolaeneae C.E. Hubb. [1934] {possibly better within Centotheceae}:  Thysanolaena.

 

tribe Cyperochloeae L. Watson & Dallwitz ex Sánchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. – Cyperochloeae L. Watson & Dallwitz [1992, nom. nud.]):  Cyperochloa, Spartochloa.

 

tribe Centotheceae Ridl. [1907] (subtribe Centothecinae Benth. [1881]):  Centotheca, Megastachya.

 

tribe Chasmanthieae W.V. Br. & B.N. Smith ex Sánchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010]:  Bromuniola, Chasmanthium (syn. – Gouldochloa).

 

tribe Zeugiteae Sánchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. – Zeugitinae Caro [1982]):  Chevalierella, Lophatherum, Orthoclada, Pohlidium, Zeugites (syn. – Calderonella).

 

tribe Steyermarkochloeae Davidse & R.P. Ellis [1984] {DNA places with Chasmanthieae s.l. or Tristachyideae, the placement remains tentative}:  Arundoclaytonia, Steyermarkochloa.

 

tribe Tristachyideae Sánchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. – Trichopteryginae Jacq.-Fél. [1962, nom. inval.]):  Danthoniopsis, Dilophotriche, Gilgiochloa, Loudetia, Loudetiopsis, Trichopteryx, Tristachya, Zonotriche.

 

tribe Gynerieae Sánchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2001]:  Gynerium.

 

         {Paniceae sensu Clayton & Renvoize (1986) was revised following Morrone et al., 2012. Supertribes added here}.

 

Supertribe Panicodae L. Liu [1980]:

 

tribe Paniceae R.Br. [1814] (syn. – Cenchreae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Digitarieae J.J. Schmitz & Regel[1841], Paniceae Horan. [1847, as Panicinae], Spinificeae Dumort. [1829], Melinideae Hitchc. [1920], Boivinelleae A. Camus [1925], Anthephoreae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957], Trachideae Pilg. Ex Potztal [1957], Cyphochlaeneae Bosser [1965], Neurachneae S.T. Blake [1972]):

 

incertae sedis:  Chloachne, Oryzidium, Hydrothauma, Hylebates, Poecilostachys p.p., Sacciolepis, Thedachloa, Trichanthecium.

 

subtribe Anthephorinae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Digitariinae Butzin [1972]; Trachidinae Pilg. [1940, nom. inval.], Trachydastrae Stapf [1917]):  Anthephora, Chaetopoa, Chlorocalymma, Digitaria, Megaloprotachne, Taeniorhachis, Tarigidia, Thyridachne, Trachys.

 

subtribe Dichantheliinae Zuloaga [2014]:  Adenochloa, Dichanthelium.

 

subtribe Boivinellinae Pilg. [1940]:  Acroceras, Alloteropsis (syn. – Coridochloa), Amphicarpum, Cyphochlaena, Cyrtococcum, Echinochloa, Entolasia, Lasiacis, Mayariochloa, Morronea, Microcalamus, Oplismenus, Ottochloa, Parodiophyllochloa, Pseudechinolaena.

 

subtribe Neurachninae Clayton & Renvoize [1986]:  Ancistrachne, Calyptochloa, Cleistochloa, Neurachne, Paraneurachne, Thyridolepis.

 

                        incertae sedis {clade of ambiguous placement among latter set of subtribes}:  Homopholis, Walwhalleya.

 

subtribe Melinidinae Stapf [1917, as Melinidastrae] (syn. – Brachiariinae Butzin [1970], Thuarinae Ohwi [1942], Tristegininae Harv. [1869, nom. illeg.]; Melinidinae Pilg. [1940]):  Chaetium, Eriochloa, Eccoptocarpha, Leucophrys, Megathrysus, Melinis (syn. –Rhynchelytrum), Mildbraediochloa, Moorochloa, Rupichloa, Scutachne, Thuarea, Tricholaena, Urochloa (syn. – Brachiaria s.s, Pseudobrachiaria?), Yvesia.

 

subtribe Panicinae Fr. [1835]:  Arthragrostis, Louisiella, Panicum, Yakirra.

 

subtribe Cenchrinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Pennisetinae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Setariinae Dumort. [1829]; Pseudoraphidinae Keng & Keng f. [1990], Snowdeniinae Butzin [1972], Spinificinae Owhi [1942], Uranthoeciinae Butzin [1970], Xerochloinae Butzin [1970]): Acritochaete, Alexfloydia, Cenchrus (syn. – Odontelyrum, Pennisetum, Snowdenia), Chamaeraphis, Dissochondrus {Hawaii}, Holcolemma, Hygrochloa, Ixophorus, Paractaenum, Paratheria, Plagiosetum, Pseudochaetochloa, Pseudoraphis, Setaria (syn.– Paspalidium), Setariopsis, Spinifex, Stenotaphrum, Stereochlaena, Streptolophus, Uranthoecium, Whiteochloa, Xerochloa, Zuloagaea, Zygochloa.

 

tribe Paspaleae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Arthropogoneae Pilg. ex Butzin [1972], Lecomtelleae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957]):

 

                        incertae sedis:  Reynaudia {basal to the other subtribes}.

 

subtribe Paspalinae Griseb. [1846] (syn. – Lecomtellinae Pilg. [1940]; Paspalinae Griseb.[1853], Paspalidinae Keng & Keng f, ex S.L. Chen & Y.X. Jin [1984], ReimarochloinaeCaro [1982]):  Aakia, Acostia, Anthaenantiopsis, Axonopus (syn. – Centrochloa, Ophiochloa), Baptorhachis, Echinolaena (syn. – Chaseochloa), Gerritea, Hopia, Ichnanthus, Lecomtella, Ocellochloa, Osvaldoa, Paspalum (syn. – Thrasya, Thrasyopsis, Reimarochloa), Renvoizea, Spheneria, Streptostachys.

 

subtribe Otachyriinae Butzin [1970]:  Aconisia {tentatively accepted}, Anthaenantia (syn. –Leptocoryphium), Hymenachne (syn. – Dallwatsonia), Otachyrium, Plagiantha, Rugoloa, Steinchisma (syn. – Cliffordiochloa, Fasciculochloa).

 

subtribe Arthropogoninae Butzin [1972]:  Achlaena, Altoparadisium, Apochloa, Arthropogon, Canastra, Coleataenia (syn. – Sorengia), Cyphonanthus, Homolepis, Keratochlaena (syn. – Sclerochlamys), Mesosetum, Oncorachis, Oplismenopsis, Phanopyrum, Stephostachys, Tatianyx, Triscenia.

 

       supertribe Andropogonodae L. Liu [1980] {Arundinelleae—Sacchareae clade}:

 

tribe Arundinelleae Stapf [1898] (syn. – Garnotieae Tateoka [1957]; subtribe Arundinellinae Honda [1930], Garnotiinae Pilg. [1956]):  Arundinella, Garnotia.

 

tribe Andropogoneae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Sacchareae Dumort. [1824], Coiceae Nakai [1943], Euchlaeneae Nakai [1943], Imperateae Godr. & Gren. [1855], Maydeae Dumort. [1824, nom. illeg.], Ophiureae Dumort. [1824], Rottboellieae Kunth [1829], Sacchareae Rchb. ex Horan. [1847, as Saccharinae], Tripsaceae C.E. Hubb. ex Nakai [1943], Zeeae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Zeeae Nakai [1943]) {Papers by Hodkinson et al., 2002, Skendzic et al., 2007, and Estep, et al.2014, portend lots of problems for classification within this tribe, of which some obvious ones are noted below.}:

 

            incertae sedis {Eriochrysis, Imperata, Pogonatherum, Tripidium, formerly placed in Saccharrinae, may be allied to Germaniinae. Chrysopogon and Thelepogon appear to be sisters and isolated from other tribes}:  Apluda, Chrysopogon (syn. – Vetiveria), Eriochrysis (syn. – Leptosaccharum), Imperata, Phacelurus (syn. – Thyrsia) {apparentlypolyphyletic}, Pogonatherum, Spathia, Spodiopogon (syn. – Eccoilopus), Thelepogon, Tripidium.

 

subtribe Arthraxoninae Benth. [1881]:  Arthraxon.

 

subtribe Tripsacinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Maydinae Harv. [1868, nom. illeg.], Zeinae Tzvelev [1968]):  Tripsacum, Zea.

 

subtribe Chionachninae Clayton [1981]:  Chionachne, Polytoca, Sclerachne, Trilobachne.

 

subtribe Coicinae Clayton & Renvoize [1986, inadvertent transfer of rank, may have been done earlier.] {Apparently sister to Rottoelliinae.}:  Coix.

 

subtribe Rottboelliinae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Vossiastae Stapf [1917]):  Chasmopodium, Elionurus {orth. var. Elyonurus}, Eremochloa, Glyphochloa, Hemarthria, Heteropholis, Lasiurus, Loxodera, Manisuris, Mnesithea (syn. – Coelorachis, Hackelochloa), Ophiuros, Oxyrhachis, Ratzeburgia, Rhytachne, Rottboellia, Thaumastochloa, Urelytrum, Vossia.

 

subtribe Ischaeminae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Apludinae Hook.f. [1896]) {entangled with Saccharinae}:  Andropterum, Ischaemum, Kerriochloa, Pogonachne, Triplopogon, Sehima.

 

subtribe Dimeriinae Hack ex C.E. Hubb. [1934] (syn. – Dimeriinae Hack [1887, sin. descr.]) {apparently nested within Ischaeminae}:  Dimeria.

 

subtribe Germainiinae Clayton [1972] (syn. – Apocopidinae Keng [1939, nom. inval.]): Apocopis, Germainia, Trachypogon.

 

subtribe Sorghinae Stapf [1917], as Sorghastrae (syn. – Amphilophiastrae Stapf [1917]; Sorgha Bluff, Nees & Schauer [1836, unranked]):  Asthenochloa, Euclasta (syn. – Indochloa), Hemisorghum, Pseudodichanthium, Sorghastrum {placement better in Saccharinae/Ischaeminae?}, Sorghum (syn. – Cleistachne, Sarga, Vacoparis).

 

subtribe Saccharinae Griseb. [1846] (syn. – Erianthinae Hack. [1883]; Polliniastrae Stapf[1917]):  Erianthus, Eulalia s.s. {s.l. is apparently polyphyletic}, Eulaliopsis, Homozeugos, Lophopogon, Microstegium (syn. – Ischnochloa), Miscanthus (syn. –Diadranthus, Rubomons, Triarrhena), Miscanthidium, Narenga, Polliniopsis, Polytrias, Pseudopogonatherum, Pseudosorghum, Saccharum s.s., Sclerostachya {better in Miscanthus?}, Veldkampia.

 

subtribe Andropogoninae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Hyparrheniastrae Stapf [1917], HypogyniastraeStapf [1917], Schizachyriastrae Stapf [1917]) {the subtribe is apparently sister to Anthistiriinae + Eulalia p.p. s.l.}:  Andropogon (syn. – Hypogynium), Bhidea, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Hyparrhenia, Schizachyrium.

 

subtribe Anthistiriinae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Anadelphiastrae Stapf [1917], Bothriochloinae Keng [1939, nom. inval.], Heteropogonastrae Stapf [1917], Themedastrae Stapf [1917]): Agenium, Anadelphia, Bothriochloa, Capillipedium, Clausospicula, Cymbopogon, Dichanthium (syn. – Eremopogon?), Elymandra, Exotheca, Heteropogon, Hyperthelia, Iseilema, Monocymbium, Parahyparrhenia, Pseudanthistiria, Themeda.

 

 

subfam. Arundinoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. – Arundinoideae Tateoka [1957, isonym], Phragmitoideae Parodi [1958, nom. inval.], Phragmitoideae Parodi ex Caro [1982]; Arundinaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], {sister to Micrairoideae}:

 

tribe Arundineae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Amphipogoneae L. Watson & T.D. Macfarl. [2002]; subtribe Arundininae Miq. [1857]):  Amphipogon (syn. – Diplopogon), Arundo, Monachather.

 

tribe Molinieae Jirásek [1966] (syn. – subtribes Crinipinae Conert, [1961], Molininae Ohwi [1941]) {see Linder et al. (1997) on the Crinipoid group}; Phragmiteae Horan. [1847, unranked]): Crinipes, Dichaetaria, Dregeochloa, Elytrophorus, Hakonechloa, Leptagrostis, Molinia, Moliniopsis, Nematopoa, Phragmites, Piptophyllum, Styppeiochloa, Zenkeria.

 

 

subfam. Micrairoideae Pilg. [1956] {sister to Arundinoideae}:

 

tribe Micraireae Pilg. [1956]:  Micraira.

 

tribe Eriachneae Eck-Borsboom [1980]:  Eriachne (syn. – Massia), Pheidochloa.

 

tribe Isachneae Benth. [1881] (syn. – subtribe Isachninae Stapf [1898]):  Coelachne, Heteranthoecia, Isachne, Limnopoa, Sphaerocaryum.

 

tribe Hubbardieae C.E. Hubb. [1960]:  Hubbardia.

 

 

subfam. Danthonioideae H.P. Linder & N.P. Baker [2001] {sister to Chloridoideae}:

 

            incertae sedis:  Alloeochaete, Danthonidium, Phaenanthoecium.

 

tribe Danthonieae Zotov. [1963] (syn. – Cortaderieae Zotov. [1963]; subtribe Cortaderinae Conert [1961], Danthoniinae Fr. [1835]):  Austroderia, Capeochloa, Chaetobromus, Chimaerochloa, Chionochloa, Cortaderia (syn. – Lamprothyrsus), Danthonia, Geochloa, Merxmuellera, Notochloe, Pentameris (syn. – Pentaschistis, Poagrostis, Prionanthium), Plinthanthesis, Pseudopentameris, Rytidosperma (syn. – Monostachya, Notodanthonia, Pyrrhanthera), Schismus (syn. – Karroochloa), Tenaxia, Tribolium.

 

 

subfam. Chloridoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. – Eragrostoideae Pilg. [1956]; Chlorideae Burmeist [1837, unranked], Pappophorae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]) {sister to Danthonioideae}:

 

incertae sedis:  Decaryella, Indopoa, Lepturopetium, Myriostachya, Neostapfiella, Pogonochloa, Pseudozoysia, Silentvalleya, Viguierella.

 

tribe Centropodieae P.M. Peterson, N.P. Barker & H.P. Linder [2011]:  Centropodia, Ellisochloa.

 

tribe Triraphideae P.M. Peterson [2010] (syn. − Triraphidinae Stapf [1917]):  Habrochloa, Neyraudia, Triraphis.

 

tribe Eragrostideae Stapf [1898] (syn.– supertribe Eragrostodae L. Liu [1980], Unioleae Roshev. exC.S. Campb. [1985]):

 

subtribe Cotteinae Reeder [1965]:  Cottea, Enneapogon, Kaokochloa, Schmidtia.

 

subtribe Unioliinae Clayton [1982]:  Entoplocamia, Fingerhuthia, Tetrachaete, Tetrachne, Uniola.

 

subtribe Eragrostidinae J. Presl [1830]:  Catalepis, Cladoraphis, Ectrosia (syn. – Ectrosiopsis, Planichloa), Eragrostis (syn. – Acamptoclados, Diandrochloa, Neeragrostis), Harpachne, Heterachne, Pogonarthria Psammagrostis, Richardsiella, Steirachne, Stiburus.

 

tribe Zoysieae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Spartineae Steele [1847], Sporoboleae Stapf [1898]):

 

subtribe Zoysiinae Benth. [1878]:  Urochondra, Zoysia.

 

subtribe Sporobolinae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Crypsidinae Maire & Weiler [1953, nom. inval.], Spartininae Maire & Weiler [1953, nom. inval.]):  Psilolemma, Sporobolus (nom. cons. prop. 2332, syn. – Calamovilfa, Crypsis, Heleochloa, Spartina, Thellungia).

 

 

 

tribe Cynodonteae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Aeluropodieae Nevski ex Bor [1965], Chlorideae Rchb.[1828, unranked], Chlorideae Trin. [1824, nom. illeg. superfl, later than Dumort., and included Cynodon], Jouveae Pilg. [1956], Leptureae Dumort. [1824, as Lepiureae], Monermeae C.E.Hubb. [1948, nom. inval.], Nazieae Hitchc. [1920, nom. illeg.], Pappophoreae Kunth [1829], Perotideae C.E. Hubb. [1960], Pommereulleae Bor [1960], Trageae Hitchc. [1927], Triodieae S.W.L. Jacobs [2004], Hubbardochloinae Auquier [1980]):

 

incertae sedis:  Allolepis, Brachychloa, Cleistogenes, Dactyloctenium, Halopyrum, Hubbardochloa, Jouvea, Kalinia, Kampochloa, Lepturidium, Neobouteloua, Orinus, Pogononeura, Sohnsia, Vietnamochloa.

 

subtribe Aeluropodinae P.M. Peterson [2010] (syn. – Aeluropodinae Jacq.-Fél. [1962, nom. inval.]):  Aeluropus, Odyssea s.s.

 

subtribe Triodiinae Benth. [1881]:  Monodia, Symplectrodia, Triodia (syn. – Plectrachne).

 

subtribe Orcuttiinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]:  Neostapfia, Orcuttia, Tuctoria.

 

subtribe Gouiniinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]):  Gouinia, Schenckochloa, Tridentopsis, Triplasis, Vaseyochloa.

 

subtribe Cteniinae P.M. Peterson, Romaschenko & Herrera Arrieta [2014]:  Ctenium.

 

subtribe Trichoneurinae P.M. Peterson, Romaschenko & Herrera Arrieta [2014]:  Trichoneura.

 

subtribe Perotidinae P.M. Peterson, Romaschenko & Herrera Arrieta [2014]:  Mosdenia, Perotis (syn. – Lopholepis, Toliara), Trigonochloa.

 

subtribe Farragininae P. M. Peterson, Romaschenko & Herrera Arrieta [2014]: Craspedorhachis, Farrago.

 

subtribe Gymnopogoninae P. M. Peterson, Romaschenko & Herrera Arrieta [2014]:  Bewsia, Dignathia, Gymnopogon, Leptocarydion, Leptothrium, Lophacme.

 

subtribe Eleusininae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Astreblinae Clayton [1982], Chloridinae J. Presl [1830], Cynodontinae (Dumort.) Tzvelev [1968], Diplachninae Rouy [1913], Lepturinae Benth. [1881], Monerminae Janch. [1953, nom. nud.], Pommereullinae Potztal [1969]): Acrachne, Afrotrichloris, Apochiton, Astrebla, Austrochloris, Chloris (syn.– Ochthochloa), Chrysochloa, Coelachyrum (syn. – Coelachyropsis), Cynodon, (syn.– Brachyachne) Daknopholis, Dinebra (syn. – Drake-Brockmania, Heterocarpha, Oxydenia), Diplachne, Disakisperma (syn. – Cypholepis), Eleusine, Enteropogon, Eustachys, Harpochloa, Leptochloa (syn. – Trichloris), Lepturus, Lintonia, Microachne, Microchloa (syn. – Rendlia), Oxychloris, Pommereulla, Rendlia, Rheochloa, Saugetia, Schoenefeldia, Sclerodactylon, Stapfochloa, Tetrapogon.

 

subtribe Tripogoninae Stapf [1917]:  Desmostachya, Eragrostiella, Melanocenchris, Oropetium, Tripogon.

 

subtribe Pappophorinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Tridentinae Keng & Keng f. [1960]): Neesiochloa, Pappophorum, Tridens s.s. {excl. Tridentopsis}.

 

subtribe Traginae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007] (syn. – Lappaginineae Link ex Endl.  [1830, nom. illeg.], Tragineae Rchb. [1845, unranked]):  Monelytrum, Polevansia, Tragus, Willkommia (syn. – Willbleibia).

 

subtribe Hilariinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]:  Hilaria (syn. – Pleuraphis).

 

subtribe Monanthochloinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969] (syn. – Distichlinae Parodi [1946, nom. nud.]):  Distichlis (syn. – Monanthochloe, Reederochloa).

 

 

subtribe Boutelouinae Stapf [1917]:  Bouteloua (syn. – Buchloe, Buchlomimus, Cathestecum, Chondrosum, Cyclostachya, Griffithsochloa, Opizia, Pentarrhaphis, Pringleochloa, Soderstromia).

 

subtribe Scleropogoninae Pilg. [1956] (syn. – Munroinae Parodi ex P.M. Peterson [1995]): Blepharidachne, Dasyochloa, Erioneuron, Munroa, Scleropogon, Swallenia.

 

subtribe Muhlenbergiinae Pilg. [1956] (syn. – Lycurinae Pilg. [1956]):  Muhlenbergia (syn. –Aegopogon, Bealia, Blepharoneuron, Chaboissaea, Lycurus, Pereilema, Redfieldia, Schaffnerella, Schedonnardus).