A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae) III: căo (), capim, ηayır, ηimen, darbha, ghaas, ghas, gish, gramas, graminius, grδser, grasses, gyokh, he-ben-ke, hullu, kasa, kusa, nyasi, pastos, pillu, pullu, zlaki, etc.

 

R. J. Soreng, P. M. Peterson, K. Romaschenko, G. Davidse, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filguieras† J. I Davis, Osvaldo Morrone†, L. G. Clark, J. K. Teisher, L. J. Gillespie, P. Barberα, C. A. D. Welker, E. A. Kellogg & De-Zhu Li

 

First published as a Classification of New World Grasses (Poaceae/Gramineae) in the four volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (2000-2003, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46 & 48), strictly Old World suprageneric taxa were added to the classification arrangement in 2011 for all subfamilies. Data are under continuous revision after this time. This page last revised 28 Apr 2022 [previous significant revisions/updates, 11 Dec 2013, 13 Dec 2011, Apr 2012, 8 Aug 2012, 18 Oct 2012, 5 Apr 2014, 3 Apr 2015, 23 Mar 2015, 2 Jun 2017, 30 Jun 2017].

The Classification now includes subfamilies (12), supertribes (7), tribes (54), supersubtribes (5), subtribes (109), and accepted genera for the World (789). Synonyms of suprageneric taxa, and synonyms of genera that are frequently recognized as distinct, are also cited.

Our classification builds on those published by Clayton & Renvoize (1986), Tzvelev (1976, 1989), Soderstrom & Ellis (1987 [1988]), Watson & Dallwitz (1992), prior to DNA phylogenetic impacts.  Followed by DNA phylogenic classifications: GBWG {Grass Phylogeny Working Group} (2001), GPWG II (2012), Kellogg (2015), Soreng et al. (2015, 2017), etc. Some important works for subfamilies: Arundinoideae and Micrairoideae (Teisher et al. 2017, Hardion et al. 2017, 2021); Bambusoideae and early diverging subfamilies, BPG: Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2012, Kelchner & BPG 2013, Wong et al. 2016, Vorontsova et al. 2017, Tyrrell et al. 2018, Clark et al. 2019, ILC Oliveira et al. 2020, RP Oliveira et al. 2020, Zhang et al. 2018, 2020, Tong et al. 2020); Chloridoideae (Peterson et al. 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2021); Danthonioideae (Linder et al. 2010);  Panicoideae (Burk et al. 2016), Paniceae and Paspaleae (Morrone et al. 2012), Andropogoneae (Estep et al. 2014, Bianconi et al. 2020, Welker et al. 2020); Pooideae (Hochbach et al. 2015), Poeae (Barberα et al. 2020, Gillespie et al. 2010, 2022, Refulio Rodrνguez et al. 2012, Saarela et al. 2010, 2017, Soreng et al. 2015b, 2017, Wφlk et al. 2015, Wφlk & Rφser 2014, 2017, Tkach et al. 2020, Peterson 2021), Stipeae (Romaschenko et al. 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, Peterson et al. 2019, 2019, 2020, 2021). (see Tropicos References: https://tropicos.org/reference/Search)

Our first World-Wide classification was published by Soreng RJ, Peterson PM, Romaschenko K, Davidse G, Zuloaga FO, Judziewicz EJ, Filgueiras TS Davis JI, Morrone 0. 2105 (on-line 23 March 2015), Journal of Systematics and Evolution 53(2): 117--730: <http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1111/jse.12150>. Kellogg (2015) produced a similar classification, with keys, descriptions, and discussions, for the family in vol. 8 of Kubitzki’s series The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Our second classification, II, was published by Soreng RJ, Peterson PM, Romaschenko K, Davidse G, Teisher JK, Clark LG, Barberα P, Gillespie LJ, Zuloaga FO. 2017. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 55(4): 259—290.  The present classification, III, is published as Appendix 1: R. J. Soreng, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, K. Romaschenko, L. G. Clark, J. K. Teisher, L. J. Gillespie, P. Barberα, C. A. D. Welker, E. A. Kellogg, De-Zhu Li & G. Davidse. (2022). A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae) III: An update. Journal of Systematics and Evolution. The version here differs by this introduction, and an added comment under PACMAD about a major nuclear DNA study by Huang et al. (2022).

 

Much of our revision results from many DNA phylogenetic studies over the last 30 years. For bibliographic references see <http://www.tropicos.org/ReferenceSearch.aspx> Advanced Search – Key Words: “Poaceae, DNA, phylogeny”. New nuclear genome studies for Poaceae (Huang et al. 2022), and Pooideae (Zhang et al. 2022), largely corroborate family-wide whole plastome phylogenies (Saarela et al.. 2018, Duvall et al. 2020), with some interesting twists on Puelioideae, basal PACMAD subfamily arrangement, and Diarrheneae.

For a continually updated listing of accepted genera and recorded synonyms and their authorships see < http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100019731>. All suprageneric taxa and genera are recorded in Tropicos with their authorships, original place of publication and types, along with historical usage: <http://www.tropicos.org/Home.aspx>.  Lists of suprageneric taxa (and others) can be generated by ranks in Tropicos using the Advanced Search options under: <http://www.tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx>. A number of older legitimate citations of place and author, and newly recognized groups, and invalid, illegitimate, and unranked names, have been detected since the publication of Genera Graminum (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986). Much work has been done in evaluating the pre-1900 suprageneric nomenclature literature, especially by Jim Reveal (recently, several tribe names were upset by the rediscovery of tribe names by Martinov, 1820, but further evaluation of the original text revealed these were mostly invalid (Welker et al. 2014). The rank of Horaninow (1947) suprageneric names remains unsettled. For suprageneric taxa accepted as legitimate by Jim Reveal see: <http://www.plantsystematics.org/reveal/pbio/WWW/supragen.html>.

The starting date of the rule that rank terminations themselves (if consistent with oideae, eae and inae ranking for subfamily, tribe and subtribe) determine rank, even if rank was not explicitly stated at the time of publication, extends back to 1887 (previously, the cutoff was 1 Jan 1908; Art. 37.2 Melbourne Code, 2011). We have not yet evaluated the impact of this change for Poaceae. Two other suprageneric ranks sporadically applied here, supertribe and supersubtribe, end in odae and odinae, respectively. Also, authorship of names of suprageneric taxa transferred from one rank to another no longer includes the basionym authors (parenthetically) (Art. 49.2).


 

 

Accepted suprageneric names appear in bold type with authors, followed by synonyms and authors. Publication dates for suprageneric taxa appear in square brackets [ ] (see tropicos.org for full references). The indigenous range of each genus is colored as follows: Western Hemisphere (blue), Eurasia (green-including genera that in Africa are exclusively Mediterranean, but not exclusively African), Australasia (orange), Africa (brown). Genera with bimodal distributions are bicolored, those with broader distributions tricolored, or are red if more widely distributed. Genera in synonymy (syn. – …..) are colored if the accepted genus is more widely distributed, i.e., in more than one area. Genera in italics have been sampled in DNA studies. Comments and C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways are in brackets { }.

 

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superorder Lilianae Takht. order Poales Small

 

family Poaceae Barnhart [1895] (nom. alt.: Gramineae Juss. [1789])

 

 

subfamily Anomochlooideae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957] (syn. – Streptochaetoideae Butzin [1965]) {C3}:

 

tribe Anomochloeae C.E. Hubb. [1934]: Anomochloa.

 

tribe Streptochaeteae C.E. Hubb. [1934]: Streptochaeta.

 

 

 

subfamily Pharoideae L.G. Clark & Judz. [1996] (syn. – subfamily Leptaspidoideae C.O. Morales [1998], supertribe Pharodae L. Liu [1980]) {C3}:

 

tribe Phareae Stapf [1898] (syn. – Leptaspideae Tzvelev [1987]): Leptaspis, Pharus, Scrotochloa.

 

 

 

subfamily Puelioideae L.G. Clark, M. Kobay, S. Mathews, Spangler & E.A. Kellogg [2000] {C3}:

 

tribe Atractocarpeae Jacq.-Fιl. ex Tzvelev [1987] (syn. – tribe Atractocarpeae Jacq.-Fιl. [1962, nom. inval.], Puelieae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988], subtribe Atractocarpinae E.G. Camus [1913], Pueliinae Stapf [1917, subtribe!]): Puelia (syn. – Atractocarpa).

 

tribe Guaduelleae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]: Guaduella.

 

 

 

“BOP” clade {Clark et al., 1995; Clark et al., 2000, as BEP} {C3}.

 

 

subfamily Oryzoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. – Ehrhartoideae Caro [1982], Oryzoideae Caro [1982, isonym]; Ehrhartinae Link [1827, invalid], Oryzeae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]) {C3}:

 

incertae sedis: Suddia {probably Phyllorachideae}.

 

tribe Streptogyneae C.E. Hubb. ex C.E. Calderσn & Soderstr. [1980] (syn. – tribe Streptogyneae C.E. Hubb. [1956, nom. inval.]; subtribe Streptogyninae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]): Streptogyna.

 

tribe Ehrharteae Nevski [1937]: Ehrharta, Microlaena, Tetrarrhena, Zotovia {genera okay in Verboom et al., 2003, except for placement of one species of Microlaena; more study is needed}.

 

tribe Oryzeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Zizanieae Hitchc. [1920]):

 

subtribe Oryzinae Griseb. [1853] (syn. – Oryzeae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subtribe?}]): Leersia, Maltebrunia, Oryza (syn. – Porteresia), Prosphytochloa.

 

subtribe Zizaniinae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Luziolinae Terrell & H. Rob. [1974]): Chikusichloa, Hygroryza, Luziola, Potamophila, Rhynchoryza, Zizania, Zizaniopsis.

 

tribe Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb. [1939] (syn. – Trachydastrae Stapf [1917, group]): Humbertochloa, Phyllorachis.

 

 

 

subfamily Bambusoideae Luerss. [1893] (syn. – Olyroideae Pilg. [1956], Parianoideae Butzin [1965]) {C3}:

 

tribe Arundinarieae Asch. & Graebn. [1902] (syn. – supertribe Arundinariodae L. Liu [1980]; tribes Chimonocalameae Keng f. [1982, nom. inval.], Shibataeeae Nakai [1933]):

 

incertae sedis: Khoonmengia, Vietnamocalamus.

 

subtribe Arundinariinae Nees ex Lindl. [1836] (syn. – Aruninariinae Benth. [1881, isonym], Hack. [1887, isonym], Phyllostachydinae Keng f. [1992], Pleioblastinae Keng & Keng f. [1959], Sasinae Keng. f. [1992], Shibataeinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988], Sinobambusinae Z.B. Wang [1987]): Acidosasa (syn. – Metasasa), Arundinaria, Bashania, Brachystachyum {reticulate: Phyllostachys Χ Pleioblastus}, Chimonobambusa (syn. – Menstruocalamus, Oreocalamus, Qiongzhuea), Ferrocalamus, Gelidocalamus, ΧHibanobambusa {reticulate: Sasa Χ Semiarundinaria}, Indocalamus (s.s.), Indosasa, Oligostachyum (syn. – Clavinodum), Phyllostachys (s.s.), Pleioblastus (syn. – Nipponocalamus, Polyanthus), Pseudosasa (syn. – Yadakeya), Ravenochloa, Sasa (syn. – Neosasamorpha), Sasaella, Sasamorpha, Semiarundinaria {reticulate: Pleioblastus Χ Phyllostachys}, Shibataea, Sinobambusa (syn. – Neobambus), Sinosasa.

 

subtribe Thamnocalaminae Keng. f. [1992]: Bergbambos, Chimonocalamus, Fargesia (syn. – Borinda, Sinarundinaria), Kuruna, Oldeania, Sarocalamus, Thamnocalamus s.s, Yushania (syn. – Burmabambus, Butania, Monospatha).

 

subtribe Gaoligonshaniiae D.Z. Li & Y.X. Zhang [2020]: Gaoligongshania.

 

subtribe Ampelocalaminae D.Z. Li & Y.X. Zhang [2020]: Ampelocalamus (syn. – Petrocalamus), Drepanostachyum, Himalayacalamus.

 

subtribe Hsuehochloinae D.Z. Li & Y.X. Zhang [2020]: Hsuehochloa.

 

tribe Olyreae Kunth ex Spenn. [1825] (syn. – supertribe Olyrodae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987 {1988}]; tribes Buergersiochloeae S.T. Blake [1946], Parianeae C.E. Hubb. [1934]).

 

subtribe Buergersiochloinae L.G. Clark & Judz. [2007] {expanded by Carvalho et al., 2021}: Buergersiochloa, Ekmanochloa, Mniochloa, Piresiella.

 

subtribe Olyrinae Kromb. [1875] (syn. – Olyreae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subtribe?}]: Agnesia, Arberella, Brasilochloa, Cryptochloa, Diandrolyra, Froesiochloa, Lithachne, Maclurolyra, Olyra, Parodiolyra, Piresia, Raddia, Raddiella, Rehia, Reitzia, Sucrea, Taquara.

 

subtribe Parianinae Hack. [1887]: Eremitis, Pariana, Parianella.

 

tribe Bambuseae Kunth ex Dumort. [1829] (syn. – supertribe Bambusodae L. Liu [1980]; tribes Arthrostylidieae E.G. Camus [1913], Baccifereae E.G. Camus [1913, nom. inval.], Chusqueae E.G. Camus [1913], Hickelieae A. Camus [1935, nom. inval.], Oxytenanthereae Tzvelev [1987]):

 

subtribe Melocanninae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Schizostachydinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]): Annamocalamus, Cephalostachyum (syn. – Leptocanna), Davidsea, Melocanna, Neohouzeaua, Ochlandra, Pseudostachyum, Schizostachyum (syn. – Dendrochloa, Teinostachyum), Stapletonia.

 

subtribe Hickeliinae A. Camus [1924] (syn. – Nastinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]): Cathariostachys, Decaryochloa, Hickelia (syn. – Pseudocoix), Hitchcockella, Nastus, Perrierbambus, Sirochloa, Sokinochloa, Valiha.

 

subtribe Bambusinae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Dendrocalaminae Benth. [1881]): Bambusa (syn. – Dendrocalamopsis, Leleba, Lingnania, Neosinocalamus, Pseudobambusa), Bonia, Cochinchinochloa, Dendrocalamus (syn. – Klemachloa, Sellulocalamus, Sinocalamus), Fimbribambusa, Gigantochloa, Maclurochloa, Melocalamus, Oreobambos, Oxytenanthera (syn. – Houzeaubambus, Scirpobambos), Phuphanochloa, Pseudoxytenanthera, Soejatmia, Thyrsostachys, Vietnamosasa, Yersinochloa.

 

subtribe Racemobambosinae Stapleton [1984]: Chloothamnus (syn. – Oreiostachys), Racemobambos s.s., Widjajachloa.

 

subtribe Dinochloinae K.M. Wong & W.L. Goh [2016]: Cyrtochloa, Dinochloa, Mullerochloa, Neololeba, Pinga, Parabambusa, Sphaerobambos.

 

subtribe Greslaniinae K.M. Wong & W.L. Goh [2016]: Greslania.

 

subtribe Holttumochloinae K.M. Wong & W.L. Goh [2016]: Holttumochloa, Kinabaluchloa, Nianhochloa.

 

subtribe Temburongiinae K.M. Wong [2016]: Temburongia.

 

incertae sedis: Laobambos, Neomicrocalamus, Ruhooglandia, Temochloa.

 

subtribe Chusqueinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988] (syn. – Neurolepidinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]): Chusquea (syn. – Neurolepis, Platonia, Rettbergia, Swallenochloa).

 

subtribe Guaduinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]: Apoclada, Eremocaulon (syn. – Criciuma), Guadua, Olmeca, Otatea, Tibisia.

 

subtribe Arthrostylidiinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]: Actinocladum, Alvimia, Arthrostylidium, Athroostachys, Atractantha, Aulonemia (syn. – Matudacalamus), Aulonemiella, Cambajuva, Colanthelia, Didymogonyx, Elytrostachys, Filgueirasia, Glaziophyton, Merostachys, Myriocladus, Rhipidocladum.

 

 

 

subfamily Pooideae Benth. [1861] (syn. – Secaloideae Rouy [1913]; Agrostidoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833]; Hordeaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Phalarideae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Stipaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]) {C3}:

 

tribe Brachyelytreae Ohwi [1941] (syn. – subtribe Brachyelytrinae Ohwi [1942]): Brachyelytrum.

 

     supertribe Nardodae Soreng [2017] {Nardeae + Lygeeae}:

 

tribe Nardeae W.D.J. Koch. [1837] (syn. – subtribe Nardinae Kromb. [1875]): Nardus.

 

tribe Lygeeae J. Presl [1846] (syn. – subtribe Lygeinae Rφser [2009], Spartineae Trin. [1824, nom. inval., based on Lygeum]): Lygeum.

 

tribe Duthieeae Rφser & Jul.Schneider [2011], subtribe Duthieinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]): Anisopogon, Danthoniastrum, Duthiea s.s. (s.l., syn. – Triavenopsis), Metcalfia, Pappagrostis, Pseudodanthonia, Sinochasea, Stephanachne.

 

tribe Phaenospermateae Renvoize & Clayton [1985]: Phaenosperma {reticulate; see Hochbach et al., 2015}.

 

     supertribe Melicodae Soreng [2017] {Brylkineae + Meliceae}:

 

tribe Brylkinieae Tateoka [1960] {sister to Meliceae} (syn. – subtribe Brylkiniinae Ohwi [1941]): Brylkinia.

 

tribe Meliceae Link ex Endl. [1830] (syn. – Glycerieae Link ex Endl. [1830] {sister to Brylkinieae}; subtribe Glyceriinae Dumort. [1869], Melicinae Fr. [1835]): Glyceria (syn. – Devauxia, Hemibromus, Hydrochloa, Hydropoa, Nevroloma, Porroteranthe), Koordersiochloa (syn. – Streblochaete), Lycochloa, Melica, Pleuropogon, Schizachne, Triniochloa.

 

     supertribe Stipodae L. Liu [1980] {Stipeae + Amplelodesmeae}:

 

tribe Ampelodesmeae Tutin [1978] (syn. – Ampelodesminae Conert [1961]): Ampelodesmos {reticulate, apparently an ancient hybrid between parents from Stipeae and Duthieeae; see Romaschenko et al., 2012; Hochbach et al. 2015}.

 

tribe Stipeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – subtribe Stipinae Griseb. [1846]; Aciachninae Caro [1982], Ortachninae Caro [1982]): Achnatherum (syn. – Aristella) {Eurasian/African only, Western Hemisphere species are in limbo, none belong in Achnatherum s.s., most are Eriocoma but not yet transferred}, Aciachne, Amelichloa {nested within Nassella, but an intergeneric hybrid origin has not been ruled out}, Anemanthele, Austrostipa, Barkworthia, Celtica, Eriocoma {incl. most American spp. of Achnatherum}, Hesperostipa, Jarava, Lorenzochloa (syn. – Anatherostipa, Nicoraella), Macrochloa, Nassella, Neotrinia, Oloptum, Ortachne, Orthoraphium, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, Piptochaetium, Piptatheropsis, Piptatherum, Psammochloa, Pseudoeriocoma, Ptilagrostiella, Ptilagrostis, Stipa, Stipellula (Stipella), Thorneochloa, Timouria, Trikeraia. (and 4 species of Anatherostipa s.l. related to Aciachne)

 

tribe Diarrheneae C.S. Campb. [1985] (syn. – subtribe Diarrheninae Ohwi [1941]): Diarrhena, Neomolinia.

 

tribe Brachypodieae Harz [1880] (syn. – subtribe Brachypodiinae Hack. [1887]; Brachypodieae Hayek [1925, isonym]): Brachypodium (syn. – Trachynia).

 

     supertribe Poodae L. Liu [1980] (syn. – Poodae T.D. Macfarl. & L. Watson [1982], isonym {tribe Poeae only}):

 

tribe Poeae R.Br. [1814] (syn. – Agrostideae Martinov [1820] {as Koleno = tribe, indirect ref. to Kunth}, Agrostideae Dumort. [1824], Airopsideae Gren. & Godr. [1855], Alopecureae W.D.J. Koch [1837], Anthoxantheae Link ex Endl. [1830], Aveneae Dumort. [1824], Beckmannieae Nevski [1937], Calamagrostideae Trin. [1824], Cinneae Ohwi [1941], Coleantheae Husn. [1896], Cynosureae Dumort. [1824], Dupontieae A. Lφve & D. Lφve, [1961, nom. nud.], Festuceae Dumort. [1824], Gaudinieae Rouy [1913], Graphephoreae Hyl. [1953], Hainardieae Greuter [1967], Holceae J. Presl [1846], Lolieae Link ex Endl. [1830], Koelerieae Schur [1866, nom. nud.], Milieae Link ex Endl. [1830], Phalarideae Kunth [1829], Phleeae Dumort. [1824], Scolochloeae Tzvelev [1968], Seslerieae W.D.J. Koch [1837], Triseteae Gren. & Godr. [1855], Vilfeae Trin. [1824]):

 

Poeae CHLOROPLAST GROUP 1 (Aveneae type) {Soreng et al., 2007}:

 

subtribe Torreyochloinae Soreng & J.I Davis [2003]: Amphibromus, Torreyochloa.

 

subtribe Phalaridinae Fr. [1835]: Phalaris (syn. – Baldingera, Phalaroides, Typhoides).

 

subtribe Aveninae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Gaudiniinae Holub ex Tzvelev [1976, nom. nud.], Graphephorinae Asch. & Graebn. [1900], Koeleriinae Asch. & Graebn. [1900], Lagurinae Saarela [2017]): Acrospelion, Aegialina, Arrhenatherum, Avellinia, Avena (syn. – Preissia), Cinnagrostis (syn. – Leptophyllochloa) {“Deyeuxia” of Latin America p.p. max.}, Gaudinia, Graphephorum {reticulate between Acrospelion and Sphenopholis/Peyritschia clade}, Helictotrichon s.s. (syn. – Pseudarrhenatherum; excl. Avenula and Helictochloa), Koeleria (syn. – Airochloa, Brachystylus, Parafestuca), Lagurus, Limnodea, Peyritschia, Rostraria s.s. {reticulate in type spp. only between Aegialina and Gaudinia-Trichaeta clades}, Sibirotrisetum, Sphenopholis, Tricholemma, Trisetaria s.s., Trisetum s.s., Trisetopsis {reticulate}, Tzveleviochloa {reticulate between Acrospelion and Helictotrichon}.

 

subtribe Anthoxanthinae A. Gray [1856] (syn. – Foenodorinae Krause [1909, nom. inval.]): Anthoxanthum (syn. – Ataxia, Hierochloe).

 

      supersubtribe: Agrostidodinae Soreng [2017]: {Brizinae + Calothecinae + Echinopogoninae + Hypseochloinae + Agrostidinae}:

 

subtribe Brizinae Tzvelev s.s. [1968]: Airopsis, Briza (syn. – Macrobriza; excl. Brizochloa).

 

subtribe Echinopogoninae Soreng [2017] {Peterson et al., 2021b}: Echinopogon, Greeneochloa, Pentapogon (syn. – Ancistragrostis, Dichelachne, Sclerodeyeuxia), Relchela.

 

subtribe Hypseochloinae Rφser & Tkach [2020]: Hypseochloa.

 

subtribe Calothecinae Soreng [2015] {Silva et al, 2021}: Boldrinia, Calotheca, Chascolytrum, Condilorachia, Erianthecium, Lombardochloa, Microbriza, Poidium, Rhombolytrum (syn. – Gymnachne), Rosengurttia.

 

subtribe Paramochloinae L.N. Silva & Saarela [2021]: Laegaardia, Paramochloa.

 

subtribe Agrostidinae Fr. [1835] (syn. – Calamagrostidinae Lindl. [1836, nom. nud.], Vilfinae Steud. [1854]; Chaeturaceae Link [1827, unranked]): Agrostis (syn. – Agraulus, Anomalotis, Bromidium, Didymochaeta, Chaetopogon, Linkagrostis, Neoschischkinia, Notonema, Trichodium), Agrostula, Alpagrostis, Calamagrostis (syn. – Ammophila, Deyeuxia, Stilpnophleum), Gastridium, Lachnagrostis {reticulate between Agrostis and Polypogon}, Podagrostis, Polypogon (syn. – Chaetotropis, Nowodwarskya) {messy, reticulate with Agrostis}, Triplachne.

 

Poeae CHLOROPLAST GROUP 2 (Poeae type) {Soreng et al., 2007}:

 

subtribe Scolochloinae Tzvelev [1987] {this subtribe seems to share plastids with the classical Poeae and nrDNA with early GROUP 1 Aveninae}: Dryopoa, Scolochloa.

 

subtribe Sesleriinae Parl. [1845] (syn. – Miborinae Asch. & Graebn. [1899]) {reticulate: this subtribe shares plastids with the old Poeae and nrDNA with early Aveninae GROUP 1}: Mibora, Echinaria, Oreochloa, Psilathera, Sesleria, Sesleriella.

 

subtribe Airinae Fr. [1835] (syn. – Corynephorinae V. Jirαsek & Chrtek [1962]): Aira (syn. – Aspris, Salmasia), Avenella, Corynephorus, Periballia.

 

subtribe Antinorinae Rφser & Tkach [2020]: Antinoria.

 

subtribe Helictochloinae Rφser & Tkach [2020]: Helictochloa {incl. Avenula p.p. non-typica, A. subg. Pratavenastrum}, Molineriella.

 

subtribe Holcinae Dumort. [1868]: Holcus, Vahlodea.

 

subtribe Aristaveninae F. Albers & Butzin [1977] (syn. – Deschampsinae Holub [1958, nom. nud.], Scribneriinae Soreng & J.I. Davis [2003]): Deschampsia s.s. (syn. – Aristavena, Scribneria, Stylagrostis) {excl. Avenella}.

 

       supersubtribe Loliodinae Soreng [2017] {Loliinae + Dactylidinae + Cynosurinae + Ammochloinae + Parapholiinae}:

 

subtribe Loliinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Festucinae J. Presl [1830], Psilurinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]): Castellia, Drymochloa, Festuca (syn. – Ctenopsis, Dielsiochloa, Helleria (of E. Fourn.), Hellerochloa, Loliolum, Megalachne, Micropyrum, Narduroides, Podophorus, Psilurus, Vulpia, Wangenheimia), Leucopoa, Locajonoa (syn. – Lojaconoa Gand., nom. inval.), Lolium (syn. – Micropyropsis, Schedonorus), Patzkea, Pseudobromus, Xanthochloa.

 

subtribe Dactylidinae Stapf [1898]: Dactylis, Lamarckia.

 

subtribe Cynosurinae Fr. [1835]: Cynosurus.

 

subtribe Ammochloinae Tzvelev [1976]: Ammochloa.

 

subtribe Parapholiinae Caro [1982] (syn. – Monerminae Tzvelev [1987, nom. inval.]): Agropyropsis, Catapodium, Cutandia, Desmazeria, Hainardia, Parapholis, Sphenopus, Vulpiella.

 

PPAM clade {Gillespie et al. 2008, 2010, 2022; Soreng et al. 2015b, 2022} {Coleanthinae + Poodinae}:

 

subtribe Coleanthinae Rouy [1913] (syn. – Puccinelliinae Soreng & Davis [2003]): Catabrosa, Catabrosella, Coleanthus, Colpodium (syn. – Keniochloa, Zingeria), Hyalopoa, Hyalopodium, Paracolpodium, Phippsia, Puccinellia (syn. – Pseudosclerochloa), Sclerochloa (syn. – Scleropoa).

 

       supersubtribe Poodinae Soreng & L.J. Gillespie [2017] {Poinae + Miliinae + Phleinae + Avenulinae + Alopecurinae superclade}:

 

incertae sedis: Arctopoa {reticulate: an ancient hybrid genus with a Poa plastid and nrDNA related to Cinna}, Agrostopoa {preliminary ITS nrDNA data suggest in may belong in Poa}.

 

subtribe Poinae Dumort. s.s. [1829]: Poa (syn. – Anthochloa, Aphanelytrum, Austrofestuca, Dissanthelium, Eremopoa, Libyella, Lindbergella, Neuropoa, Ochlopoa, Oreopoa, Parodiochloa, Raimundochloa, Tovarochloa, Tzvelevia).

 

subtribe Avenulinae Rφser & Tkach [2020]: Avenula (syn. – Homalotrichon, Neoholubia) {s.s., p.p. typica – A. pubescens; excl. Helictochloa}.

 

subtribe Miliinae Dumort. [1829] {sister to Poa or Phleum in plastid analyses; nrDNA analyses are equivocal for placing it within Poodinae versus sister to Coleanthinae}: Milium.

 

subtribe Phleinae Dumort. [1868]: Phleum (syn. – Maillea).

 

Alopecurinae superclade [Gillespie et al., 2022] (Cinninae + Hookerochloinae + Brizochloinae + Dupontinae + (Beckmanniinae + (Alopecurinae + Ventenatinae))):

 

subtribe Beckmanniinae Nevski [1937]: Beckmannia, Pholiurus, Pseudophleum, Rhizocephalus.

 

subtribe Cinninae Caruel. [1892]: Aniselytron {ancient hybrid, with Cinna like plastids and different copies of nrDNA aligning near Simplicia and early Poa}, Cinna, Cinnastrum, Cyathopus, Simplicia.

 

subtribe Hookerochloinae Soreng & L.J. Gillespie [2022], HSAQN clade {Gillespie et al. 2010, Kellogg 2015}: Arctagrostis, Hookerochloa (syn. – Festucella), Nicoraepoa {reticulate in part: one known hybrid with Poa}, Saxipoa, Sylvipoa.

 

subtribe Brizochloinae Rφser & Tkach [2020]: Brizochloa {usually placed in Briza}.

 

subtribe Dupontiinae Soreng & L.J. Gillespie [2022], DAD clade {reticulate lineage between an ancient taxon allied to Alopecurinae (nrDNA), and perhaps Cinninae (Soreng et al. 2015b, Gillespie et al., 2022) (plastid DNA)}: Arctohyalopoa, Arctophila {sometimes lumped in Dupontia}, Dupontia, Dupontiopsis.

 

subtribe Alopecurinae Dumort. [1829]: Alopecurus (syn. – Cornucopiae), Limnas.

 

subtribe Ventenatinae Holub ex L.J. Gillespie, Cabi & Soreng: Apera, Bellardiochloa, Gaudinopsis, Nephelochloa, Parvotrisetum, Ventenata (syn. – Pilgerochloa).

 

     supertribe Triticodae T.D. Macfarl. & L. Watson [1982] {Littledaleeae + Bromeae + Triticeae}:

 

tribe Littledaleeae Soreng & J.I. Davis [2015] (syn. – subtribe Littledaleinae Rφser [2009]: Littledalea {this isolated genus appears to be the sister to Bromeae plus Triticeae}.

 

tribe Bromeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – subtribe Brominae Dumort. [1829]): Bromus (syn. – Anisantha, Boissiera, Bromopsis, Ceratochloa, Nevskiella, Stenofestuca, Trisetobromus).

 

tribe Triticeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – tribes Aegilopineae Orb. [1841], Hordeeae Kunth ex Spenn. [1825], Frumenteae E.H.L. Krause [1903, nom. illeg.], Secaleinae Rchb. [1828, unranked]; – subtribesAegilopinae Nevski [1933]), Agropyrinae Nevski [1933], Clinelyminae Nevski [1933, nom. illeg.], Elyminae Benth. [1881], Henrardiinae C.E. Hubb. [1948], Hordeinae Dumort. [1829], Roegneriinae Nevski [1933], Triticinae Fr. [1835]) {many of the genera are reticulate in origin}: Agropyron, Anthosachne {reticulate}, Australopyrum, Connorochloa {reticulate}, Crithopsis, Douglasdeweya {reticulate, but probably best in Agropyron}, Elymus (syn. – Campeiostachys, Elytrigia, Hystrix, Roegneria, Sitanion) {reticulate}, Eremopyrum, Festucopsis, Henrardia, Heteranthelium, Hordelymus {reticulate}, Hordeum (syn. – Critesion), Kengyilia {reticulate}, Leymus (syn. – Aneurolepidium, Eremium, Macrohystrix, Microhystrix) {reticulate}, Pascopyrum {reticulate}, Peridictyon, Psathyrostachys, Pseudoroegneria, Secale, Stenostachys {reticulate}, Taeniatherum; (Triticum subclade): Aegilops, Amblyopyrum {probably best in Aegilops}, Dasypyrum, Thinopyrum {reticulate}, Triticum {reticulate}.

 

 

 

“PACMAD” clade {Sαnchez-Ken & Clark, 2010; also known as PACC (Davis & Soreng, 1993), PACCAD (GPWG, 2001), or PACCMAD (Sαnchez-Ken et al. 2007)} {Cotton et al. (2015) resolved Panicoideae at the base of PACMAD and Aristidoideae as sister to sister to CMAD but a basal position for Aristidoideae was resolved by Teisher (2016, 2017) and others, see also Burke et al. (2016); further analyses by Duvall et al. (2020) provided convincing evidence that Panicoideae as the sister to all the ACMAD subfamilies. However, new nuclear DNA data from Huang et al. (2022) again point to Aristidoideae as basal}.

 

 

subfam. Panicoideae A. Braun [1864] (syn. − Andropogonoideae Rouy [1913], Centothecoideae Soderst. [1981]; Andropogineae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Paniceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Paniceae Link [1827, unranked], Rottboelliaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Panicinae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subfam.?}]):

 

incertae sedis: Alloeochaete, Dichaetaria {these two form a clade at base of Panicoideae; fide Teisher 2017}, Schmidiella {Veldkamp (2018) described this new genus of ambiguous affinity as possibly Andropogoneae}.

 

tribe Thysanolaeneae C.E. Hubb. [1934] {sister to Cyperochloeae + Centotheceae, possibly better as subtribe within Centotheceae} {C3}: Thysanolaena.

 

tribe Cyperochloeae L. Watson & Dallwitz ex Sαnchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. – Cyperochloeae L. Watson & Dallwitz [1992, nom. nud.]) {possibly better as subtribe within Centotheceae} {C3}: Cyperochloa, Spartochloa.

 

tribe Centotheceae Ridl. [1907] (subtribe Centothecinae Benth. [1881]) {C3}: Centotheca, Megastachya.

 

tribe Tristachyideae Sαnchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. – subtribe Trichopteryginae Jacq.-Fιl. [1962, nom. inval.]) {sister to the previous three tribes} {C4}: Danthoniopsis, Dilophotriche, Gilgiochloa, Loudetia, Loudetiopsis, Trichopteryx, Tristachya (syn. – Isalus), Zonotriche.

 

tribe Chasmanthieae W.V. Br. & B.N. Smith ex Sαnchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] {C3}: Chasmanthium (syn. – Gouldochloa, Bromuniola).

 

tribe Zeugiteae Sαnchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. – subtribe Zeugitinae Caro [1982]) {sister to Chasmanthieae} {C3}: Chevalierella, Lophatherum, Orthoclada, Zeugites (syn. – Calderonella, Pohlidium).

 

tribe Steyermarkochloeae Davidse & R.P. Ellis [1984] {although plastid DNA places with Arundoclaytonia with Chasmanthieae s.l., and Steyermarkochloa closer to Zeugiteae, the placement remains tentative until these results can be confirmed and understood} {C3}: Arundoclaytonia, Steyermarkochloa.

 

tribe Gynerieae Sαnchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2001] {C3}: Gynerium.

 

tribe Lecomtelleae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957] (syn. – subtribe Lecomtellinae Pilg. [1940]): Lecomtella {possibly sister to Panicodae + Andropogonodae} {C3}.

 

 

     supertribe Panicodae L. Liu [1980]:

 

tribe Paniceae R.Br. [1814] (syn. – Cenchreae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Digitarieae J.J. Schmitz & Regel[1841], Paniceae Horan. [1847{rank tribe or subtribe?}], Spinificeae Dumort. [1829], Melinideae Hitchc. [1920], Boivinelleae A. Camus [1925], Anthephoreae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957], Trachideae Pilg. Ex Potztal [1957], Cyphochlaeneae Bosser [1965], Neurachneae S.T. Blake [1972]):

 

incertae sedis: Hydrothauma {C3}, Hylebates {C4}, Oryzidium {C4}, Thedachloa.

 

“Sacciolepis grex” Zuloaga [2021] {C3}: Kellochloa, Sacciolepis, Trichanthecium. (and 18 spp. “Panicum” p.p. non typica {C3}).

 

subtribe Anthephorinae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Digitariinae Butzin [1972]; Trachidinae Pilg. [1940, nom. inval.], Digitariastrae Stapf [1917, group]): Anthephora {C4}, Chaetopoa {C4}, Chlorocalymma {C4}, Digitaria (syn. – Leptoloma, Megaloprotachne, Trichachne) {C4}, Taeniorhachis {C4?}, Tarigidia {C4}, Thyridachne {C3}, Trachys {C4}.

 

subtribe Dichantheliinae Zuloaga [2014] {C3}: Adenochloa, Dichanthelium.

 

subtribe Boivinellinae Pilg. [1940]: Acroceras (syn. – Setiacis) {C3}, Alloteropsis (syn. – Coridochloa) {mixed C3 C4}, Cnidochloa{C3}, Amphicarpum {C3}, Chasechloa, Cyphochlaena {C3}, Cyrtococcum {C3}, Echinochloa {C4}, Entolasia {C3}, Lasiacis {C3}, Mayariochloa {C4}, Morronea {C3}, Microcalamus {C3}, Oplismenus {C3}, Ottochloa {C3}, Parodiophyllochloa {C3}, Poecilostachys (syn. – Chloachne) {C3}, Pseudechinolaena {C3}, Pseudolasiacis {C3}. (and 7 spp. Brachiaria p.p. non typica and 12 spp. Panicum p.p. non typica {C3}).

 

subtribe Neurachninae Clayton & Renvoize [1986]: Ancistrachne {C3}, Calyptochloa {C3}, Cleistochloa {C3}, Dimorphochloa {C3}, Neurachne (syn. – Paraneurachne C4) {C4 and mixed C3 C4}, Thyridolepis {C3}.

 

incertae sedis {clade of ambiguous placement among latter set of subtribes}: Homopholis (syn. – Walwhalleya){C3 and C4}.

 

subtribe Melinidinae Pilg. [1940] (syn. – Brachiariinae Butzin [1970], Thuarinae Ohwi [1942], Tristegininae Harv. [1869, nom. illeg.]; Melinastrae Stapf [1917, group]) {C4}: Chaetium, Eccoptocarpha, Eriochloa, Leucophrys, Megathyrsus (syn. – Pseudobrachiaria), Melinis (syn. – Mildbraediochloa, Rhynchelytrum), Moorochloa, Rupichloa, Scutachne, Thuarea, Tricholaena, Urochloa (syn. – Brachiaria s.s), Yvesia. (and 2 spp. Panicum grex Deustum {C4}).

 

subtribe Panicinae Fr. [1835] {C4}: Louisiella, Panicum (syn. – Arthragrostis, Yakirra).

 

subtribe Cenchrinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Cenchastrae Stapf [1917, group], Pennisetinae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Setariinae Dumort. [1829]; Pseudoraphidinae Keng & Keng f. [1990], Snowdeniinae Butzin [1972], Spinificinae Owhi [1942], Uranthoeciinae Butzin [1970], Xerochloinae Butzin [1970]): Acritochaete {C3}, Alexfloydia {C4}, Cenchrus (syn. – Cenchropsis, Echinaria (of Heist. ex Fabr.), Kikuyuochloa, Nastus (of Lunell), Odontelytrum, Pennisetum, Snowdenia) {C4}, Chamaeraphis {C4}, Dissochondrus {Hawaii} {C4}, Holcolemma {C3}, Hygrochloa {C4}, Ixophorus {C4}, Paractaenum, {C4} Paratheria {C4}, Plagiosetum {C4}, Pseudochaetochloa {C4}, Pseudoraphis {C4}, Setaria (syn. – Camusiella, Paspalidium) {C4}, Setariopsis {C4}, Spinifex {C4}, Stenotaphrum {C4}, Stereochlaena {C4}, Streptolophus {C4}, Uranthoecium {C4}, Whiteochloa {C4}, Xerochloa {C4}, Zuloagaea {C4}, Zygochloa {C4}. (and Panicum antidotale {C4}).

 

 

     supertribe Andropogonodae L. Liu [1980] {Paspaleae + Jansenelleae + Arundinelleae + Andropogoneae}:

 

 

tribe Paspaleae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Arthropogoneae Pilg. ex Butzin [1972]):

 

incertae sedis: Reynaudia {basal to the other subtribes}{C4}.

 

subtribe Paspalinae Griseb. [1846] (syn. – Paspalinae Griseb.[1853], Paspalidinae Keng & Keng f, ex S.L. Chen & Y.X. Jin [1984], Reimarochloinae Caro [1982]): Aakia {C4}, Acostia {C4}, Anthenantia (syn. – Leptocoryphium) {C4}, Anthaenantiopsis {C4}, Axonopus (syn. – Centrochloa, Ophiochloa) {C4}, Echinolaena {C3}, Gerritea {C3}, Hildaea {C3}, Hopia {C4}, Ichnanthus {C3}, Ocellochloa {C3}, Oedochloa {C3}, Osvaldoa {C4}, Paspalum (syn. – Baptorhachis, Thrasya, Thrasyopsis, Reimarochloa, Spheneria) {C4}, Renvoizea {C3}, Streptostachys {C3}.

 

subtribe Otachyriinae Butzin [1970]: Hymenachne (syn. – Aconisia, Dallwatsonia) {C3}, Otachyrium {C3}, Plagiantha {C3}, Rugoloa {C3}, Steinchisma (syn. – Cliffordiochloa, Fasciculochloa) {C3 and mixed C3 C4}.

 

subtribe Arthropogoninae Butzin [1972]: Achlaena {C4}, Altoparadisium {C4}, Apochloa {C3}, Arthropogon {C4}, Canastra {C3}, Coleataenia (syn. – Sorengia) {C4}, Cyphonanthus {C4}, Homolepis {C3 and mixed C3 C4?}, Keratochlaena (syn. – Sclerochlamys) {C4}, Mesosetum {C4}, Oncorachis {C4}, Oplismenopsis {C3}, Phanopyrum {C3}, Stephostachys {C3}, Tatianyx {C4}, Triscenia {C3}.

 

tribe Jansenelleae Voronts. [2020] {C3}: Chandrasekharania, Jansenella.

 

tribe Arundinelleae Stapf [1898] (syn. – tribe Garnotieae Tateoka [1957]; subtribe Arundinellinae Honda [1930], Garnotiinae Pilg. [1956]) {C4}: Arundinella, Garnotia.

 

tribe Andropogoneae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Coiceae Nakai [1943], Euchlaeneae Nakai [1943], Imperateae Gren. & Godr. [1855], Maydeae Dumort. [1824, nom. illeg.], Ophiureae Dumort. [1829], Rottboellieae Kunth [1829], Sacchareae Dumort. [1824], Saccharinae Rchb. ex Horan. [1847{rank tribe or subfam.?}], Polliniastrae Stapf [1917, group, applicable to Microstegium], Tripsaceae C.E. Hubb. ex Nakai [1943], Zeeae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Zeeae Nakai [1943]) {revised by Welker et al., 2020, updated here by Welker and Kellogg}{C4}:

 

incertae sedis: Clausospicula, Elionurus {orth. var. Elyonurus}, Eriochrysis (syn. – Leptosaccharum), Jardinea, Kerriochloa, Lakshmia, Lasiurus, Leptatherum (syn. – Polliniopsis), Microstegium (syn. – Ischnochloa), Parahyparrhenia, Phacelurus (syn. – Pseudovossia), Pogonachne, Pseudodichanthium, Pseudopogonatherum, Sehima, Spathia, Spodiopogon (syn. – Eccoilopus), Thelepogon, Tripidium, Triplopogon, Veldkampia.

{Some relationships of the above genera are apparent: (Lasiurus + Thelepogon) (Arthraxon (Tripsacinae ((Chionachninae + Rhytachninae) ((Chrysopogon (Eriochrysis + Parahyparrhenia)) ((Kerriochloa + Microstegium + Sehima) (((Rottboelliinae + Tripidium) + Elionurus + Ratzeburgiinae) (Ischaeminae ((Germainiinae (Sorghinae + Saccharinae)) + Apludinae + (Jardinea (Anthistiriinae + Andropogoninae))))))))))}.

 

subtribe Arthraxoninae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Arthraxonastrae Stapf [1917, group]): Arthraxon.

 

subtribe Tripsacinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Maydinae Harv. [1868, nom. illeg.], Zeinae Tzvelev [1968]) {whole nuclear genome duplicated}: Tripsacum, Zea (syn. – Euchlaena).

 

subtribe Chionachninae Clayton [1981]: Chionachne (syn. – Sclerachne), Polytoca (syn. – Cyathorhachis), Trilobachne.

 

subtribe Rhytachninae Welker & E.A. Kellogg [2020] (syn. – Vossiastrae Stapf [1917, group]): Loxodera (syn. – Lepargochloa), Oxyrhachis, Rhytachne, Urelytrum, Vossia.

 

subtribe Chrysopogoninae Welker & E.A. Kellogg [2020]: Chrysopogon (syn. – Vetiveria) {reticulate: sister to Thelepogon in nuclear trees, but related to Eriochrysis + Parahyparrhenia in plastome trees}.

 

subtribe Rottboelliinae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Coicinae Rchb. ex Clayton & Renvoize [1986], Coicinae Rchb. [1828, unranked]): Chasmopodium (syn. – Robynsiochloa), Coix, Rottboellia.

 

subtribe Ratzeburgiinae Hook. f. [1896, “1897”]: Eremochloa, Glyphochloa, Hackelochloa, Hemarthria, Heteropholis, Manisuris, Mnesithea (syn. – Coelorachis), Ophiuros, Ratzeburgia, Thaumastochloa, Thyrsia.

 

subtribe Ischaeminae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Dimeriinae Hack. ex C.E. Hubb. [1934], Dimeriinae Hack. [1887, nom. nud.], Ischaeminae Stapf [1898, subtribe, isonym]): Andropterum, Dimeria (syn. – Nanooravia), Eulaliopsis, Ischaemum (syn. – Digastrium).

 

subtribe Germainiinae Clayton [1972] (syn. – Apocopidinae Keng [1939, nom. inval.]): Apocopis, Germainia, (syn. – Chumsriella), Imperata, Lophopogon, Pogonatherum.

 

subtribe Sorghinae Bluff, Nees & Schauer ex Clayton & Renvoize [1986] (syn. – Sorgha Bluff, Nees & Schauer [1836, infrafamilial unranked], Sorghastrae Stapf [1917, group]): Cleistachne, Lasiorhachis, Sarga, Sorghum (syn. – Hemisorghum, Vacoparis).

 

subtribe Saccharinae Griseb. [1846] (syn. – Erianthinae Hack. [1883]) {whole nuclear genome duplicated}: Miscanthus (syn. – Diandranthus, Miscanthidium, Narenga, Rubimons, Sclerostachya, Triarrhena), Pseudosorghum, Saccharum (syn. – Erianthus).

 

subtribe Apludinae Hook. f. [1896, “1897”] (syn. – Apludastrae Stapf [1917, group]): Apluda, Asthenochloa, Eulalia s.s. {s.l. is apparently polyphyletic}, Homozeugos, Polytrias, Sorghastrum, Trachypogon.

 

subtribe Anthistiriinae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Amphilophiastrae Stapf [1917, group], Bothriochloinae Keng [1939, nom. inval.], Heteropogonastrae Stapf [1917, group], Themedastrae Stapf [1917, group]): Agenium, Bothriochloa (syn. – Amphilophis), Capillipedium, Cymbopogon, Dichanthium, Eremopogon, Euclasta (syn. – Indochloa), Heteropogon, Iseilema, Pseudanthistiria, Themeda (syn. – Anthistiria).

 

subtribe Andropogoninae J. Presl [1830] (syn. – Anadelphiastrae Stapf [1917, group], Hyparrheniastrae Stapf [1917, group], Hypogyniastrae Stapf [1917, group], Schizachyriastrae Stapf [1917, group]: Anadelphia (syn. – Monium, Pobeguinea), Andropogon (syn. – Hypogynium), Bhidea, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Elymandra (syn. – Pleiadelphia), Exotheca, Hyparrhenia (syn. – Dybowskia), Hyperthelia, Monocymbium, Schizachyrium (syn. – Ystia).

 

 

 

subfamily Aristidoideae Caro [1982]:

 

tribe Aristideae C.E. Hubb. [1960]: Aristida {C4, one C3}, Sartidia {C3}, Stipagrostis {C4}.

 

 

 

subfamily Arundinoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. – tribe Arundinoideae Tateoka [1957, isonym], Phragmitoideae Parodi [1958, nom. inval.], Phragmitoideae Parodi ex Caro [1982], Arundinaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked] {sister to Micrairoideae}{C3}:

 

tribe Arundineae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – tribe Amphipogoneae L. Watson & T.D. Macfarl. [2002]; subtribe Arundininae Miq. [1857]): Amphipogon (syn. – Diplopogon), Arundo, Dregeochloa {fide Teisher 2017}, Monachather.

 

tribe Molinieae Jirαsek [1966] (syn. – subtribe Moliniinae Ohwi [1941], Phragmiteae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subtribe?}]) {emend Teisher (2017) , sister to Crinipedeae}: Hakonechloa, Molinia, Moliniopsis, Phragmites.

 

tribe Crinipedeae Hardion [2017] (syn. – subtribe Crinipinae Conert, [1961]) {emend Linder et al. (1997), Hardion et al. (2017, 2021), Teisher (2017), sister to Molinieae}: Crinipes, Elytrophorus, Leptagrostis, Piptophyllum, Pratochloa (syn. – Eragrostis walteri), Styppeiochloa.

 

 

 

 

subfamily Micrairoideae Pilg. [1956] {sister to Arundinoideae}:

 

incertae sedis: Zenkeria {Hardion et al. (2017), indicate this is near Micraira}.

 

tribe Micraireae Pilg. [1956] {C3}: Micraira.

 

tribe Eriachneae Eck-Borsboom [1980]: Eriachne (syn. – Massia, Pheidochloa {fide Teisher 2016}) {C4}.

 

tribe Isachneae Benth. [1881] (syn. – tribe Hubbardieae C.E. Hubb. [1960]; subtribe Isachninae Stapf [1898]) {C3}: Coelachne, Heteranthoecia, Hubbardia, Isachne, Limnopoa, Sphaerocaryum.

 

 

 

subfamily Danthonioideae H.P. Linder & N.P. Baker [2001] {sister to Chloridoideae} {C3}:

 

incertae sedis: Danthonidium.

 

tribe Danthonieae Zotov. [1963] (syn. – Cortaderieae Zotov. [1963]; subtribe Cortaderiinae Conert [1961], Danthoniinae Fr. [1835]): Austroderia, Capeochloa, Chaetobromus, Chimaerochloa, Chionochloa, Cortaderia (syn. – Lamprothyrsus), Danthonia, Geochloa, Merxmuellera, Notochloe, Pentameris (syn. – Pentaschistis, Poagrostis, Prionanthium), Phaenanthoecium {fide Teisher 2017}, Plinthanthesis, Pseudopentameris, Rytidosperma (syn. – Monostachya, Notodanthonia, Pyrrhanthera), Schismus (syn. – Karroochloa), Tenaxia, Tribolium.

 

 

 

subfamily Chloridoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. – tribe Eragrostoideae Pilg. [1956]; Chlorideae Burmeist [1837, unranked], Pappophorae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]) {sister to Danthonioideae}:

 

incertae sedis: Gossweilerochloa, Indopoa, Lepturopetium, Myriostachya, Pogonochloa, Pseudozoysia, Silentvalleya.

 

tribe Centropodieae P.M. Peterson, N.P. Barker & H.P. Linder [2011]: Centropodia {C4}, Ellisochloa {C3}.

 

tribe Triraphideae P.M. Peterson [2010] (syn. – subtribe Triraphidinae Stapf [1917, subtribe!]) {C4}: Habrochloa, Nematopoa, Neyraudia, Triraphis.

 

tribe Eragrostideae Stapf [1898] (syn. – supertribe Eragrostodae L. Liu [1980]; tribe Unioleae Roshev. ex C.S. Campb. [1985]) {C4}:

 

subtribe Cotteinae Reeder [1965]: Cottea, Enneapogon, Kaokochloa, Schmidtia.

 

subtribe Eragrostidinae J. Presl [1830]: Eragrostis (syn. – Acamptoclados, Catalepis, Cladoraphis, Diandrochloa, Ectrosia, Ectrosiopsis, Harpachne, Heterachne, Neeragrostis, Planichloa, Pogonarthria, Psammagrostis, Richardsiella, Stiburus, Steirachne, Triphlebia, Viguierella).

 

subtribe Uniolinae Clayton [1982]: Entoplocamia, Fingerhuthia, Tetrachne, Uniola (syn. – Leptochloopsis).

 

tribe Zoysieae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Spartineae Steele [1847], Sporoboleae Stapf [1898]) {C4}:

 

subtribe Sporobolinae Benth. [1881] (syn. – Crypsidinae Maire & Weiler [1953, nom. inval.], Spartininae Maire & Weiler [1953, nom. inval.]): Psilolemma, Sporobolus (nom. cons.; syn. – Calamovilfa, Crypsis, Heleochloa, Spartina, Thellungia).

 

subtribe Zoysiinae Benth. [1878]: Urochondra, Zoysia.

 

tribe Cynodonteae Dumort. [1824] (syn. – Aeluropodeae Nevski ex Bor [1965], Chlorideae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Chlorideae Trin. [1824, nom. illeg. superfl, later than Dumort., and included Cynodon], Jouveeae Pilg. [1956], Lappagineae Link ex Endl. [1830, nom. illeg.], Leptureae Dumort. [1824, as Lepiureae], Monermeae C.E. Hubb. [1948, nom. inval.], Nazieae Hitchc. [1920, nom. illeg.], Pappophoreae Kunth [1829], Perotideae C.E. Hubb. [1960], Pommereulleae Bor [1960], Pommereullinae Potztal [1969], Trageae Hitchc. [1927], Triodieae S.W.L. Jacobs [2004]) {C4}:

 

incertae sedis: Kampochloa, Lepturidium, Pommereulla, Rheochloa, Sclerodactylon, Vietnamochloa.

 

subtribe Aeluropodinae P.M. Peterson [2010] (syn. – Aeluropodinae Jacq.-Fιl. [1962, nom. inval.]): Aeluropus, Odyssea s.s. {reticulate}.

 

subtribe Dactylocteniinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2016]: Acrachne {reticulate}, Brachychloa, Dactyloctenium, Neobouteloua.

 

subtribe Eleusininae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Astreblinae Clayton [1982], Chloridinae J. Presl [1830], Cynodontinae Tzvelev [1968], Diplachninae Rouy [1913], Lepturinae Benth. [1881], Monerminae Janch. [1953, nom. nud.]): Afrotrichloris, Astrebla, Austrochloris, Chloris (syn. – Lintonia, Ochthochloa), Chrysochloa, Coelachyrum (syn. – Apochiton, Coelachyropsis), Cynodon (syn. – Brachyachne), Daknopholis, Dinebra {reticulate} (syn. – Drake-Brockmania, Heterocarpha, Oxydenia), Diplachne, Disakisperma (syn. – Cypholepis), Eleusine, Enteropogon, Eustachys, Harpochloa, Leptochloa (syn. – Trichloris), Lepturus, Micrachne, Microchloa (syn. – Rendlia), Neostapfiella, Oxychloris, Schoenefeldia, Schoenefeldiella, Stapfochloa, Tetrapogon (syn. – Enteropogonopsis, Saugetia).

 

subtribe Orcuttiinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]: Neostapfia, Orcuttia (syn. – Tuctoria).

 

subtribe Orininae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2016]: Cleistogenes (syn. – Kengia), Orinus.

 

subtribe Pappophorinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. – Tridentinae Keng & Keng f. [1960]): Neesiochloa, Pappophorum, Tridens s.s. (syn. – Antonella).

 

subtribe Triodiinae Benth. [1881]: Triodia (syn. – Monodia, Plectrachne, Symplectrodia).

 

subtribe Tripogoninae Stapf [1917, subtribe!]: Desmostachya, Eragrostiella, Halopyrum, Melanocenchris, Oropetium, Tripogon, Tripogonella.

 

      supersubtribe Boutelouodinae P.M. Peterson & Romasch. [2017] {Boutelouinae + Hilariinae + Monanthochloinae + Muhlenbergiinae + Scleropogoninae + Traginae}:

 

subtribe Allolepiinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Allolepis.

 

subtribe Boutelouinae Stapf [1917, subtribe!]: Bouteloua (syn. – Buchloe, Buchlomimus, Cathestecum, Chondrosum, Cyclostachya, Griffithsochloa, Opizia, Pentarrhaphis, Pringleochloa, Soderstromia).

 

subtribe Hilariinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]: Hilaria (syn. – Pleuraphis).

 

subtribe Jouveinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Jouvea.

 

subtribe Kaliniinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Kalinia.

 

subtribe Monanthochloinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969] (syn. – Distichlinae Parodi [1946, nom. nud.]): Distichlis (syn. – Monanthochloe, Reederochloa).

 

subtribe Muhlenbergiinae Pilg. [1956] (syn. – Lycurinae Pilg. [1956]): Muhlenbergia (syn. – Aegopogon, Bealia, Blepharoneuron, Chaboissaea, Lycurus, Pereilema, Redfieldia, Schaffnerella, Schedonnardus).

 

subtribe Scleropogoninae Pilg. [1956] (syn. – Munroinae Parodi ex P.M. Peterson [1995]): Blepharidachne, Dasyochloa, Erioneuron, Munroa, Scleropogon, Swallenia.

 

subtribe Sohnsiinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Sohnsia.

 

subtribe Traginae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007] (syn. – Lappagineae Link [1827, unranked], Tragineae Rchb. [1845, unranked]): Monelytrum, Orthacanthus, Pogononeura, Polevansia, Tragus, Willkommia (syn. – Willbleibia).

 

      supersubtribe Gouiniodinae P.M. Peterson & Romasch. [2017] {Cteniinae + Farragininae + Gouiniinae + Hubbardochloinae + Perotidinae + Trichoneurinae + Zaqiqahinae}:

 

subtribe Cteniinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Ctenium.

 

subtribe Farragininae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Craspedorhachis, Farrago.

 

subtribe Gouiniinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]): Gouinia, Schenckochloa, Tridentopsis, Triplasiella, Triplasis, Vaseyochloa.

 

subtribe Hubbardochloinae Auquire [1980] (syn. – Gymnopogoninae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]): Bewsia, Decaryella, Dignathia, Gymnopogon, Hubbardochloa, Leptocarydion, Leptothrium (syn. – Latipes), Lophacme, Tetrachaete.

 

subtribe Perotidinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Mosdenia, Perotis (syn. – Lopholepis, Toliara), Trigonochloa.

 

subtribe Trichoneurinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Trichoneura.

 

subtribe Zaqiqahinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2016]: Zaqiqah.

 

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