A WORLD-WIDE PHYLOGENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF POACEAE (GRAMINEAE): căo (), capim, ayır, imen, darbha, ghaas, ghas, gish, gramas, graminius, grser, grasses, gyokh, he-ben-ke, hullu, kasa, kusa, nyasi, pastos, pillu, pullu, zlaki, etc.

R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras, O. Morrone, K. Romaschenko, L. G. Clark, J. K. Teisher, L. J. Gillespie & P. Barbera

First published 13 Jan. 2000 as Classification of New World Grasses (Poaceae/Gramineae). Data are under continuous revision after this time. This page last revised 30 June 2017 (previous significant revisions/updates, 11 Dec 2013, 13 Dec 2011, Apr 2012, 8 Aug 2012, 18 Oct 2012, 5 Apr 2014, 3 Apr 2015, 23 Mar 2015, 2 Jun 2017).

http://www.tropicos.org/docs/meso/CLASSIFICATION%20OF%20world%20grasses%202013%20Oct%2029%20(2)fZedits%20April%203%202015.htm

The following classification was initiated for the Catalogue of New World Grasses project. It now includes subfamilies (12), supertribes (7), tribes (52), supersubtribes (5), subtribes (94), and accepted genera for the World (768). Synonyms of suprageneric taxa, and synonyms of genera that are frequently recognized as distinct, are also cited. Strictly Old World suprageneric taxa were added to the classification arrangement in 2011 for all subfamilies.

Our classification builds on those of Clayton & Renvoize (1986), Tzvelev (1976, 1989), Watson & Dallwitz (1992), Grass Phylogeny Working Group (2001), for Bambuseae and allies, Soderstrom & Ellis (1987 [1988]), and for New World Poaceae, the four volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (2000-2003, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46 & 48), all those that have gone before, and many newer works including, for Paniceae and Paspaleae (Morrone et al. 2012), Andropogoneae (Estep et al., 2014), Arundinoideae (Teisher 2017), Bambusoideae (BPG: Bamboo Phylogeny Group 2012, Kelchner & BPG 2013, Wong et al. 2016, Vorontsova et al. 2017), Chloridoideae (Peterson et al. 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016), Danthonioideae (Linder et al. 2010), Pooideae (Hochbach et al. 2015), Poeae (Barbera et al. in prep, Gillespie et al. 2010, Refulio Rodrguez et al. 2012, Saarela et al. 2010, 2017, Soreng et al. 2015b, Wlk et al. 2015, Wlk & Rser 2014, 2017), Stipeae (Romaschenko et al. 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013).

Our previous classification was published by Soreng et al., 2105 (on-line 23 March 2015), in the Journal of Systemtics and Evoulution: <http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1111/jse.12150>. Kellogg (2015) produced a similar classification of the family in vol. 8 of Kubitzkis series The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Our classification is revised here, for publication JSE in July of 2017 (Soreng et al. 2017), along with 4 newer subtribes in Chloridoideae (Peterson et al., 2017).

Much of our revision results from many DNA phylogenetic studies over the last 27 years. For bibliographic references see <http://www.tropicos.org/ReferenceSearch.aspx>Advanced Search Key Words: Poaceae, DNA.

For a continually updated listing of accepted genera and recorded synonyms and their authorships see < http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100019731>. All suprageneric taxa and genera are recorded in Tropicos with their authorships, original place of publication and types, along with historical usage: <http://www.tropicos.org/Home.aspx>.  Lists of suprageneric taxa (and others) can be generated in Tropicos using the Advanced Search options under: <http://www.tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx>. A number of older legitimate citations of place and author, and newly recognized groups, and invalid, illegitimate, and unranked names, have been detected since the publication of Genera Graminum (Clayton & Renvoize, 1986). Much work has been done in evaluating the pre-1900 suprageneric nomenclature literature, especially by Jim Reveal (recently, several tribe names were upset by the rediscovery of tribe names by Martinov, 1820, but further evaluation of the original text revealed these were mostly invalid (Welker et al. 2014). The rank of Horaninow (1947) suprageneric names remains unsetteled. For suprageneric taxa accepted as legitimate by Jim Reveal see: <http://www.plantsystematics.org/reveal/pbio/WWW/supragen.html>.

The starting date of the rule that rank terminations themselves (if consistent with oideae, eae and inae ranking for subfamily, tribe and subtribe) determine rank, even if rank was not explicitly stated at the time of publication, extends back to 1887 (previously, the cutoff was 1 Jan 1908; Art. 37.2 Melbourne Code). We have not had time to evaluate the impact of this change for Poaceae. Two other suprageneric ranks sporadically applied here, supertribe and supersubtribe, end in odae and odinae, respectively. Also, authorship of names of suprageneric taxa transferred from one rank to another no longer include the original authors (parenthetically) (Art. 49.2), even if the transfer would be invalid without the citation of the basionym or replaced synonym (Art. 41.20). In the latter case we consider such changes of rank as replacement names (nom. novs.), otherwise the place of validation gets lost. This is not done if a suprageneric name is validly published for the first time.

Accepted suprageneric names appear in bold type. The indigenous range of each genus is colored as follows: Western Hemisphere, Eurasia (including genera that in Africa are exclusively Mediterranean, but not exclusively African), Australasia, Africa. Genera with bimodal distributions are bicolored, those with broader distributions tricolored, or are red if more widely distributed. Genera in synonymy (syn. ..) are colored if the accepted genus is more widely distributed, i.e., in more than one area. Genera in italics have been sampled in DNA studies. Comments and C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways are in brackets { }. Publication dates for suprageneric taxa appear in square brackets [ ].

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superorder Lilianae Takht. order Poales Small

family Poaceae Barnhart [1895] (nom. alt.: Gramineae Juss. [1789])

 

 

subfamily Anomochlooideae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957] (syn. Streptochaetoideae Butzin [1965]) {all C3}:

 

tribe Anomochloeae C.E. Hubb. [1934]: Anomochloa.

 

tribe Streptochaeteae C.E. Hubb. [1934]: Streptochaeta.

 

 

 

subfamily Pharoideae L.G. Clark & Judz. [1996] (syn. subfamily Leptaspidoideae C.O. Morales [1998], supertribe Pharodae L. Liu [1980]) {all C3}:

 

tribe Phareae Stapf [1898] (syn. Leptaspideae Tzvelev [1987]): Leptaspis, Pharus, Scrotochloa.

 

 

 

subfamily Puelioideae L.G. Clark, M. Kobay, S. Mathews, Spangler & E.A. Kellogg [2000] {all C3}:

 

tribe Atractocarpeae Jacq.-Fl. ex Tzvelev [1987] (syn. tribe Atractocarpeae Jacq.-Fl. [1962, nom. inval.], Puelieae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988], subtribe Atractocarpinae E.G. Camus [1913], Pueliinae Stapf [1917]): Puelia (syn. Atractocarpa).

 

tribe Guaduelleae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]: Guaduella.

 

 

 

BOP clade {Clark et al., 1995; Clark et al., 2000, as BEP} {all C3}

 

 

subfamily Oryzoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. Ehrhartoideae Caro [1982], Oryzoideae Caro [1982, isonym]; Ehrhartinae Link [1827, invalid], Oryzeae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]) {all C3}:

 

incertae sedis: Suddia {probably Phyllorachideae}.

 

tribe Streptogyneae C. E. Hubb. ex C. E. Caldern & Soderstr. [1980] (syn. tribe Streptogyneae C.E. Hubb. [1956, nom. inval.]; subtribe Streptogyninae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]): Streptogyna.

 

tribe Ehrharteae Nevski [1937]: Ehrharta, Microlaena, Tetrarrhena, Zotovia {genera okay in Verboom et al., 2003, except for placement of one species of Microlaena; more study is needed}.

 

tribe Oryzeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. Zizanieae Hitchc. [1920]):

 

subtribe Oryzinae Griseb. [1853] (syn. Oryzeae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subtribe?}]): Leersia, Maltebrunia, Oryza (syn. Porteresia),Prosphytochloa.

 

subtribe Zizaniinae Benth. [1881] (syn. Luziolinae Terrell & H. Rob. [1974]): Chikusichloa, Hygroryza, Luziola, Potamophila, Rhynchoryza, Zizania, Zizaniopsis.

 

tribe Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb. [1939] {may be better in Oryzeae as a subtribe}: Humbertochloa, Phyllorachis.

 

 

 

subfamily Bambusoideae Luerss. [1893] (syn. Olyroideae Pilg. [1956], Parianoideae Butzin [1965]) {all C3}:

 

tribe Arundinarieae Asch. & Graebn. [1902] (syn. supertribe Arundinariodae L. Liu [1980]; tribes Chimonocalameae Keng f. [1982, nom. inval.], Shibataeeae Nakai [1933]):

 

subtribe Arundinariinae Nees ex Lindl. [1836] (syn. Aruninariinae Benth. [1881, isonym], Hack. [1887, isonym], Phyllostachydinae Keng f. [1992], Pleioblastinae Keng & Keng f. [1959], Sasinae Keng. f. [1992], Shibataeinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988], Sinobambusinae Z.B. Wang [1987], Thamnocalaminae Keng. f. [1992]): Acidosasa, Ampelocalamus (s.s.), Arundinaria, Bashania, Bergbambos, Chimonobambusa (syn. Menstruocalamus, Oreocalamus, Qiongzhuea), Chimonocalamus, Drepanostachyum, Fargesia (syn. Borinda, Sinarundinaria), Ferrocalamus, Gaoligongshania, Gelidocalamus, Himalayacalamus, Indocalamus (s.s.), Indosasa, Kuruna, Oldeania, Oligostachyum, Phyllostachys (s.s.), Pleioblastus (syn. Nipponocalamus, Polyanthus), Pseudosasa (syn. Yadakeya), Sarocalamus, Sasa (syn. Neosasamorpha), Sasaella, Sasamorpha, Semiarundinaria (syn. Brachystachyum), Shibataea, Sinobambusa, Thamnocalamus s.s, Vietnamocalamus, Yushania.

 

tribe Olyreae Kunth ex Spenn. [1825] (syn. supertribe Olyrodae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1987 {1988}]; tribes Buergersiochloeae S.T. Blake [1946], Parianeae C.E. Hubb. [1934]).

 

subtribe Buergersiochloinae L.G. Clark & Judz. [2007]: Buergersiochloa.

 

subtribe Olyrinae Kromb. [1875] (syn. Olyreae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subtribe?}]: Agnesia, Arberella, Cryptochloa, Diandrolyra, Ekmanochloa, Froesiochloa, Lithachne, Maclurolyra, Mniochloa, Olyra, Parodiolyra, Piresiella, Raddia, Raddiella, Rehia, Reitzia (syn. Piresia), Sucrea.

 

subtribe Parianinae Hack. [1887]: Eremitis, Pariana, Parianella.

 

tribe Bambuseae Kunth ex Dumort. [1829] (syn. supertribe Bambusodae L. Liu [1980]; tribes Arthrostylidieae E.G. Camus [1913], Baccifereae E.G. Camus [1913, nom. inval.], Chusqueae E.G. Camus [1913], Hickelieae A. Camus [1935, nom. inval.], Oxytenanthereae Tzvelev [1987]):

 

subtribe Melocanninae Benth. [1881] (syn. Schizostachydinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]): Annamocalamus, Cephalostachyum (syn. Leptocanna), Davidsea, Melocanna, Neohouzeaua, Ochlandra, Pseudostachyum, Schizostachyum (syn. Dendrochloa, Teinostachyum), Stapletonia.

 

subtribe Hickeliinae A. Camus [1924] (syn. Nastinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]): Cathariostachys, Decaryochloa, Hickelia (syn. Pseudocoix), Hitchcockella, Nastus (syn. Oreiostachys), Perrierbambus, Sirochloa, Sokinochloa, Valiha.

 

subtribe Bambusinae J. Presl [1830] (syn. Dendrocalaminae Benth. [1881]): Bambusa (syn. Dendrocalamopsis, Neosinocalamus, Pseudobambusa), Bonia, Cochinchinochloa, Dendrocalamus (syn. Klemachloa, Sellulocalamus, Sinocalamus), Fimbribambusa, Gigantochloa, Maclurochloa, Melocalamus, Neomicrocalamus, Oreobambos, Oxytenanthera (syn. Houzeaubambus, Scirpobambus), Phuphanochloa, Pseudoxytenanthera, Soejatmia, Thyrsostachys, Vietnamosasa, Yersinochloa.

 

subtribe Racemobambosinae Stapleton [1984]: Chloothamnus (syn. Oreiostachys), Racemobambos s.s., Widjajachloa.

 

subtribe Dinochloinae K.M. Wong & W.L. Goh [2016]: Cyrtochloa,Dinochloa,Mullerochloa, Neololeba, Pinga, Parabambusa, Sphaerobambos.

 

subtribe Greslaniinae K.M. Wong & W.L. Goh [2016]: Greslania.

 

subtribe Holttumochloinae K.M. Wong & W.L. Goh [2016]: Holttumochloa, Kinabaluchloa, Nianhochloa.

 

subtribe Temburongiinae K.M. Wong [2016]: Temburongia.

 

incertae sedis: Ruhooglandia, Temochloa.

 

subtribe Chusqueinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988] (syn. Neurolepidinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]): Chusquea (syn. Neurolepis, Platonia, Rettbergia, Swallenochloa).

 

subtribe Guaduinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]: Apoclada, Eremocaulon (syn. Criciuma), Guadua, Olmeca, Otatea.

 

subtribe Arthrostylidiinae Soderstr. & R.P. Ellis [1988]: Actinocladum, Alvimia, Arthrostylidium, Athroostachys, Atractantha, Aulonemia (syn. Matudacalamus), Cambajuva, Colanthelia, Didymogonyx, Elytrostachys, Filgueirasia, Glaziophyton, Merostachys, Myriocladus, Rhipidocladum.

 

 

 

subfamily Pooideae Benth. [1861] (syn. Secaloideae Rouy [1913]; Agrostidoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833]; Hordeaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Phalarideae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Stipaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]) {all C3}:

 

tribe Brachyelytreae Ohwi [1941] (syn. subtribe Brachyelytrinae Ohwi [1942]): Brachyelytrum.

 

     supertribe Nardodae Soreng [2017] {Nardeae + Lygeeae}:

 

tribe Nardeae W.D.J. Koch. [1837] (syn. subtribe Nardinae Kromb. [1875]): Nardus.

 

tribe Lygeeae J. Presl [1846] (syn. subtribe Lygeinae Rser [2009], Spartineae Trin. [1824, nom. inval., based on Lygeum]): Lygeum.

 

tribe Duthieeae Rser & Jul.Schneider [2011], subtribe Duthieinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]): Anisopogon, Danthoniastrum, Duthiea s.s. (s.l., syn. Triavenopsis), Metcalfia, Pappagrostis, Pseudodanthonia, Sinochasea, Stephanachne.

 

tribe Phaenospermateae Renvoize & Clayton [1985]: Phaenosperma {reticulate; see Hochbach et al., 2015}.

 

     supertribe Melicodae Soreng [2017] {Brylkineae + Meliceae}:

 

tribe Brylkinieae Tateoka [1960] {sister to Meliceae} (syn. subtribe Brylkiniinae Ohwi [1941]): Brylkinia.

 

tribe Meliceae Link ex Endl. [1830] (syn. Glycerieae Link ex Endl. [1830] {sister to Brylkinieae}; subtribe Glyceriinae Dumort. [1869], Melicinae Fr. [1835]): Glyceria, Koordersiochloa (syn. Streblochaete), Lycochloa, Melica, Pleuropogon, Schizachne, Triniochloa.

 

     supertribe Stipodae L. Liu [1980] {Stipeae + Amplelodesmeae}:

 

tribe Ampelodesmeae Tutin [1978] (syn. Ampelodesminae Conert [1961]): Ampelodesmos {reticulate, apparently an ancient hybrid between parents from Stipeae and Duthieeae; see Romaschenko et al., 2012; Hochbach et al. 2015}.

 

tribe Stipeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. subtribe Stipinae Griseb. [1846]; Aciachninae Caro [1982], Ortachninae Caro [1982]): Achnatherum (syn. Aristella) {Eurasian/African only, Western Hemisphere species are in limbo, none belong in Achnatherum s.s., most are Eriocoma but not yet transferred}, Aciachne, Amelichloa {nested within Nassella, but an intergeneric hybrid origin has not been ruled out}, Anatherostipa (syn. Nicoraella), Anemanthele, Austrostipa, Celtica, Eriocoma {incl. most American spp. of Achnatherum}, Hesperostipa, Jarava, Lorenzochloa, Macrochloa, Nassella, Oloptum, Ortachne, Orthoraphium, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, Piptochaetium, Piptatheropsis, Piptatherum, Psammochloa, Ptilagrostis, Stipa, Stipellula (Stipella nom. illeg. hom.), Timouria, Trikeraia.

 

tribe Diarrheneae C.S. Campb. [1985] (syn. subtribe Diarrheninae Ohwi [1941]): Diarrhena, Neomolinia.

 

tribe Brachypodieae Harz [1880] (syn. subtribe Brachypodiinae Hack. [1887]; Brachypodieae Hayek [1925, isonym]): Brachypodium (syn. Trachynia).

 

     supertribe Poodae L. Liu [1980] (syn. Poodae T.D. Macfarl. & L. Watson [1982], isonym {tribe Poeae only}):

 

tribe Poeae R.Br. [1814] (syn. Agrostideae Martinov [1820] {as Koleno = tribe, indirect ref. to Kunth}, Agrostideae Dumort. [1824], Airopsideae Gren. & Godr. [1855], Alopecureae W.D.J. Koch[1837], Anthoxantheae Link ex Endl. [1830], Aveneae Dumort. [1824], Beckmannieae Nevski [1937], Calamagrostideae Trin. [1824], Cinneae Ohwi [1941], Coleantheae Husn. [1896], Cynosureae Dumort. [1824], Dupontieae A. Lve & D. Lve, [1961, nom. nud.], Festuceae Dumort. [1824], Gaudinieae Rouy [1913], Graphephoreae Hyl. [1953], Hainardieae Greuter [1967], Holceae J. Presl [1846], Lolieae Link ex Endl. [1830], Koelerieae Schur [1866, nom. nud.], Milieae Link ex Endl. [1830], Phalarideae Kunth [1829], Phleeae Dumort. [1824], Scolochloeae Tzvelev [1968], Seslerieae W.D.J. Koch [1837], Triseteae Gren. & Godr. [1855], Vilfeae Trin. [1824]):

 

Poeae CHLOROPLAST GROUP 1 (Aveneae type) {Soreng et al., 2007}:

 

subtribe Torreyochloinae Soreng & J.I Davis [2003]: Amphibromus, Torreyochloa.

 

subtribe Aveninae J. Presl [1830] (syn. Gaudiniinae Holub ex Tzvelev [1976, nom. nud.], Graphephorinae Asch. & Graebn. [1900], Koeleriinae Asch. & Graebn. [1900]): Acrospelion, Arrhenatherum, Avellinia, Avena, Cinnagrostis (syn. Leptophyllochloa) {Deyeuxia of Western Hemisphere p.p.}, Gaudinia (syn. Trichaeta), Graphephorum {reticulate}, Helictotrichon s.s. (syn. Pseudarrhenathrum; excl. Avenula and Helictochloa), Koeleria (syn. Parafestuca), Lagurus, Peyritschia, Rostraria s.s. {reticulate in type spp. only}, Sphenopholis, Tricholemma, Trisetaria s.s., Trisetum s.s., Trisetopsis {reticulate}, Tzveleviochloa {reticulate}.

 

subtribe Phalaridinae Fr. [1835]: Phalaris (syn. Baldingera, Phalaroides, Typhoides).

 

subtribe Anthoxanthinae A. Gray [1856] (syn. Foenodorinae Krause [1909, nom. inval.]): Anthoxanthum (syn. Ataxia, Hierochloe).

 

      supersubtribe: Agrostidodinae Soreng [2017]: {Brizinae + Calothecinae + Dichelachninae + Agrostidinae}:

 

subtribe Brizinae Tzvelev s.s. [1968]: Airopsis, Briza (syn. Macrobriza; excl. Brizochloa).

 

subtribe Echinopogoninae Soreng [2017]: Ancistragrostis {tentatively placed here}, Dichelachne {apparently reticulate with Calamagrostis s.s.}, Echinopogon,Pentapogon {GenBank DNA data for placement among Danthonioid or Arundinoid needs verification}, Relchela.

 

subtribe Calothecinae Soreng [2015]: Chascolytrum (syn. Calotheca, Erianthecium, Gymnachne, Lombardochloa, Microbriza, Poidium, Rhombolytrum).

 

subtribe Agrostidinae Fr. [1835] (syn. Calamagrostidinae Lindl. [1836, nom. nud.], Vilfinae Steud. [1854]; Chaeturaceae Link [1827, unranked]): Agrostis (syn. Chaetopogon, Neoschischkinia, Notonema), Bromidium {may be related to Dichelachne},Calamagrostis p.p. (syn. Ammophila, Deyeuxia) {polyphyletic in Western Hemisphere, see Cinnagrostis, Deschampsia}, Chaetotropis {reticulate}, Hypseochloa {odd here}, Gastridium, Lachnagrostis {reticulate}, Limnodea, Podagrostis {reticulate}, Polypogon {reticulate}, Triplachne.

 

Poeae CHLOROPLAST GROUP 2 (Poeae type) {Soreng et al., 2007}:

 

subtribe Scolochloinae Tzvelev [1987] {this subtribe seems to share plastids with the classical Poeae and nrDNA with early GROUP 1 Aveninae}: Dryopoa, Scolochloa.

 

subtribe Sesleriinae Parl. [1845] (syn. Miborinae Asch. & Graebn. [1899]) {this subtribe seems to share plastids with the old Poeae and nrDNA with early Aveninae GROUP 1 above}: Mibora, Echinaria, Oreochloa, Sesleria, Sesleriella.

 

subtribe Airinae Fr. [1835] (syn. Corynephorinae V. Jirsek & Chrtek [1962]) {a heterogenous subtribe with no satisfactory resolution}: Aira, Antinoria, Avenella, Corynephorus, Helictochloa {incl. Avenula p.p. non-typica, A. subg. Pratavenastrum}, Molineriella, Periballia.

 

subtribe Holcinae Dumort. [1868]: Holcus, Vahlodea.

 

subtribe Aristaveninae F. Albers & Butzin [1977] (syn. Deschampsinae Holub [1958, nom. nud.], Scribneriinae Soreng & J.I. Davis [2003]): Deschampsia s.s. (syn. Aristavena, Scribneria, Stylagrostis) {excl. Avenella}.

 

       supersubtribe Loliodinae Soreng [2017] {Loliinae + Dactylidinae + Cynosurinae + Ammochloinae + Parapholiinae}:

 

subtribe Loliinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. Festucinae J. Presl [1830], Psilurinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969]): Castellia, Drymochloa, Festuca (syn. Ctenopsis, Dielsiochloa, Helleria E. Fourn., Hellerochloa, Loliolum, Micropyrum, Narduroides, Psilurus, Vulpia, Wangenheimia), Leucopoa (syn. Xanthochloa), Lolium (syn. Micropyropsis, Schedonorus), Megalachne, Patzkea, Podophorus, Pseudobromus {the latter seems odd here. DNA data show a long branch, but outgroup selection has not clarified its placement}.

 

subtribe Dactylidinae Stapf [1898]: Dactylis, Lamarckia.

 

subtribe Cynosurinae Fr. [1835]: Cynosurus.

 

subtribe Ammochloinae Tzvelev [1976]: Ammochloa.

 

subtribe Parapholiinae Caro [1982] (syn. Monerminae Tzvelev [1987, nom. inval.]): Agropyropsis, Catapodium, Cutandia, Desmazeria, Hainardia, Parapholis, Sphenopus, Vulpiella.

 

PPAM clade {Gillespie et al. 2008, 2010; Soreng et al. 2015b} {Coleanthinae + Poodinae + Avenula}:

 

incertae sedis: Avenula (syn. Homalotrichon, Neoholubia) {s.s., p.p. typica A. pubescens; excl. Helictochloa. Avenula s.s. is a floater, apparently allied to the set of Coleanthinae and Poodinae}.

 

subtribe Coleanthinae Rouy [1913] (syn. Puccinelliinae Soreng & Davis [2003]): Catabrosa, Catabrosella, Coleanthus, Colpodium (syn. Keniochloa), Hyalopoa {apparently heterogenous}, Paracolpodium {apparently heterogenous}, Phippsia, Puccinellia (syn. Pseudosclerochloa), Sclerochloa, Zingeria {probably best united with Colpodium s.s.}.

 

       supersubtribe Poodinae Soreng & L.J. Gillespie [2017] {Poinae + Miliinae + Phleinae + Beckmanniinae + Cinninae + Alopecurinae + Ventenatinae + DAD & HSAQN clades + Arctopoa + Brizochloa}:

 

-incertae sedis: Arctopoa {an ancient hybrid genus with a Poa plastid and nrDNA from something related to Cinna}, Brizochloa {usually placed in Briza}; DAD clade {hybrid between an ancient taxon allied to Alopecurinae and an ancient Poodinae taxon sensu Soreng et al. 2015b}: Arctophila, Dupontia, Dupontiopsis; HSAQN clade {Gillespie et al. 2010, Kellogg 2015}: Arctagrostis, Hookerochloa (syn. Festucella), Nicoraepoa {one known hybrid with Poa}, Saxipoa, Sylvipoa.

 

subtribe Poinae Dumort. s.s. [1829]: Poa (syn. Anthochloa, Aphanelytrum, Austrofestuca, Dissanthelium, Eremopoa, Libyella, Lindbergella, Neuropoa, Ochlopoa, Oreopoa, Parodiochloa, Raimundochloa, Tovarochloa, Tzvelevia).

 

subtribe Miliinae Dumort. [1829] {sister to Poa or Phleum in plastid analyses; nrDNA analyses are equivocal for placing it within Poodinae versus sister to Coleanthinae}: Milium.

 

subtribe Phleinae Dumort. [1868]: Phleum (syn. Maillea).

 

subtribe Beckmanniinae Nevski [1937]: Beckmannia, Pholiurus, Pseudophleum, Rhizocephalus.

 

subtribe Cinninae Caruel. [1892]: Agrostopoa {tentatively placed here}, Aniselytron {ancient hybrid, with Cinna like plastids and different copies of nrDNA aligning near Cinna and early Poa}, Cinna, Cyathopus, Simplicia.

 

subtribe Alopecurinae Dumort. [1829]: Alopecurus, Cornucopiae, Limnas.

 

subtribe Ventenatinae Holub ex L.J. Gillespie, Cabi & Soreng: Apera, Bellardiochloa, Gaudiniopsis, Nephelochloa, Parvotrisetum, Ventenata (syn. Pilgerochloa).

 

     supertribe Triticodae T.D. Macfarl. & L. Watson [1982] {Littledaleeae + Bromeae + Triticeae}:

 

tribe Littledaleeae Soreng & J.I. Davis [2015] (syn. subtribe Littledaleinae Rser [2009]: Littledalea {this isolated genus appears to be the sister to Bromeae plus Triticeae}. {reticulate}

                                                                       

tribe Bromeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. subtribe Brominae Dumort. [1829]): Bromus (syn. Anisantha, Boissiera, Bromopsis, Ceratochloa, Nevskiella, Stenofestuca, Trisetobromus).

 

tribe Triticeae Dumort. [1824] (syn. tribes Aegilopineae Orb. [1841], Hordeeae Kunth ex Spenn. [1825], Frumenteae E.H.L. Krause [1903, nom. illeg.], Secaleinae Rchb. [1828, unranked]; subtribesAegilopinae Nevski [1933]), Agropyrinae Nevski [1933], Clinelyminae Nevski [1933, nom. illeg.], Elyminae Benth. [1881], Henrardiinae C.E. Hubb. [1948], Hordeinae Dumort. [1829], Roegneriinae Nevski [1933], Triticinae Fr. [1835]) {many of the genera are reticulate in origin}: Agropyron, Anthosachne {reticulate}, Australopyrum, Connorochloa {reticulate}, Crithopsis, Douglasdewya {reticulate}, Elymus (syn. Campeiostachys, Elytrigia, Hystrix, Roegneria, Sitanion) {reticulate}, Eremopyrum, Festucopsis, Henrardia, Heteranthelium, Hordelymus {reticulate}, Hordeum (syn. Critesion), Kengyilia {reticulate}, Leymus (syn. Aneurolepidium, Eremium, Macrohystrix, Microhystrix) {reticulate}, Pascopyrum {reticulate}, Peridictyon, Psathyrostachys, Pseudoroegneria, Secale, Stenostachys {reticulate}, Taeniatherum; (Triticum subclade): Aegilops, Amblyopyrum, Dasypyrum, Thinopyrum {reticulate}, Triticum {reticulate}.

 

 

 

PACMAD clade {Snchez-Ken & Clark, 2010; also known as PACC (Davis & Soreng, 1993), PACCAD (GPWG, 2001), or PACCMAD (Snchez-Ken et al. 2007)} {Cotton et al. 2015 resolve Panicoideae at the base of PACMAD and Aristidoideae as sister to sister to CMAD but a basal position for Aristidoideae was resolved by Teisher (2016, 2017) and others, see also Burke et al. 2016}

 

 

subfamily Aristidoideae Caro [1982]:

 

tribe Aristideae C.E. Hubb. [1960]: Aristida {C4, one C3}, Sartidia {C3}, Stipagrostis {C4}.

 

 

 

subfam. Panicoideae A. Braun [1864] (syn. Andropogonoideae Rouy [1913], Centothecoideae Soderst. [1981]; Andropogineae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Paniceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Paniceae Link [1827, unranked], Rottboelliaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], Panicinae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subfam.?}]):

 

incertae sedis {clade at base of Panicoideae; fide Teisher 2017}: Alloeochaete, Dichaetaria.

 

incertae sedis: Chandrasekharania {C3} {treated in Arundinellae by Clayton & Renvoize, 1986}.

 

tribe Thysanolaeneae C.E. Hubb. [1934] {possibly better as subtribe within Centotheceae} {C3}: Thysanolaena.

 

tribe Cyperochloeae L. Watson & Dallwitz ex Snchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. Cyperochloeae L. Watson & Dallwitz [1992, nom. nud.]) {possibly better as subtribe within Centotheceae} {C3}: Cyperochloa, Spartochloa.

 

tribe Centotheceae Ridl. [1907] (subtribe Centothecinae Benth. [1881]) {C3}: Centotheca, Megastachya.

 

tribe Chasmanthieae W.V. Br. & B.N. Smith ex Snchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] {C3}: Chasmanthium (syn. Gouldochloa, Bromuniola).

 

tribe Zeugiteae Snchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. subtribe Zeugitinae Caro [1982]) {sister to Chasmanthieae} {C3}: Chevalierella, Lophatherum, Orthoclada, Zeugites (syn. Calderonella, Pohlidium).

 

tribe Steyermarkochloeae Davidse & R.P. Ellis [1984] {DNA places with Chasmanthieae s.l. or Tristachyideae, the placement remains tentative} {C3}: Arundoclaytonia, Steyermarkochloa.

 

tribe Tristachyideae Snchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2010] (syn. subtribe Trichopteryginae Jacq.-Fl. [1962, nom. inval.]) {C4}: Danthoniopsis, Dilophotriche, Gilgiochloa, Loudetia, Loudetiopsis, Trichopteryx, Tristachya, Zonotriche.

 

tribe Gynerieae Snchez-Ken & L.G. Clark [2001] {C3}: Gynerium.

 

tribe Lecomtelleae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957] (syn. subtribe Lecomtellinae Pilg. [1940]): Lecomtella {possibly sister to Panicodae + Andropogonodae} {C3}.

 

 

     Supertribe Panicodae L. Liu [1980]:

 

tribe Paniceae R.Br. [1814] (syn. Cenchreae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Digitarieae J.J. Schmitz & Regel[1841], Paniceae Horan. [1847{rank tribe or subtribe?}], Spinificeae Dumort. [1829], Melinideae Hitchc. [1920], Boivinelleae A. Camus [1925], Anthephoreae Pilg. ex Potztal [1957], Trachideae Pilg. Ex Potztal [1957], Cyphochlaeneae Bosser [1965], Neurachneae S.T. Blake [1972]):

 

incertae sedis: Chloachne {C3}, Hydrothauma {C3}, Hylebates {C4}, Kellochloa {C3}, Oryzidium {C4}, Sacciolepis {C3}, Thedachloa, Trichanthecium {C3}.

 

subtribe Anthephorinae Benth. [1881] (syn. Digitariinae Butzin [1972]; Trachidinae Pilg. [1940, nom. inval.], Trachydastrae Stapf [1917]): Anthephora {C4}, Chaetopoa {C4}, Chlorocalymma {C4}, Digitaria (syn. Megaloprotachne) {C4}, Taeniorhachis {C4?}, Tarigidia {C4}, Thyridachne {C3}, Trachys {C4}.

 

subtribe Dichantheliinae Zuloaga [2014] {C3}: Adenochloa, Dichanthelium.

 

subtribe Boivinellinae Pilg. [1940]: Acroceras {C3}, Alloteropsis (syn. Coridochloa) {mixed C3 C4}. Amphicarpum {C3}, Chasechloa, Cyphochlaena {C3}, Cyrtococcum {C3}, Echinochloa {C4}, Entolasia {C3}, Lasiacis {C3}, Mayariochloa {C4}, Morronea {C3}, Microcalamus {C3}, Oplismenus {C3}, Ottochloa {C3}, Parodiophyllochloa {C3}, Poecilostachys {p.p} {C3}, Pseudechinolaena {C3}, Setiacis {segregate of Acroceras, GenBank DNA odd}.

 

 

subtribe Neurachninae Clayton & Renvoize [1986]: Ancistrachne {C3}, Calyptochloa {C3}, Cleistochloa {C3}, Neurachne {C4 and mixed C3 C4}, Paraneurachne {C4}, Thyridolepis {C3}.

 

incertae sedis {clade of ambiguous placement among latter set of subtribes}: Homopholis (syn. Walwhalleya {C4}) {C3 and C4}.

 

subtribe Melinidinae Stapf [1917, as Melinidastrae] (syn. Brachiariinae Butzin [1970], Thuarinae Ohwi [1942], Tristegininae Harv. [1869, nom. illeg.]; Melinidinae Pilg. [1940]) {C4}: Chaetium, Eccoptocarpha, Eriochloa, Leucophrys, Megathyrsus (syn. Pseudobrachiaria?), Melinis (syn. Mildbraediochloa, Rhynchelytrum), Moorochloa, Rupichloa, Scutachne, Thuarea, Tricholaena, Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria s.s), Yvesia.

 

subtribe Panicinae Fr. [1835]: Louisiella {C4}, Panicum (syn. Arthragrostis {C4}, Yakirra {C4}) {all C4, some C3 & C4?}.

 

subtribe Cenchrinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. Pennisetinae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Setariinae Dumort. [1829]; Pseudoraphidinae Keng & Keng f. [1990], Snowdeniinae Butzin [1972], Spinificinae Owhi [1942], Uranthoeciinae Butzin [1970], Xerochloinae Butzin [1970]): Acritochaete {C3}, Alexfloydia {C4}, Cenchrus (syn. Cenchropsis, Echinaria Heist. ex Fabr., Kikuyuochloa, Nastus Lunell, Odontelytrum, Pennisetum, Snowdenia) {C4}, Chamaeraphis {C4}, Dissochondrus {Hawaii} {C4}, Holcolemma {C3}, Hygrochloa {C4}, Ixophorus {C4}, Paractaenum, {C4} Paratheria {C4}, Plagiosetum {C4}, Pseudochaetochloa {C4}, Pseudoraphis {C4}, Setaria (syn. Camusiella, Paspalidium) {C4}, Setariopsis {C4}, Spinifex {C4}, Stenotaphrum {C4}, Stereochlaena {C4}, Streptolophus {C4}, Uranthoecium {C4},Whiteochloa {C4}, Xerochloa {C4}, Zuloagaea {C4}, Zygochloa {C4}.

 

 

     supertribe Andropogonodae L. Liu [1980] {Paspaleae + Arundinelleae + Andropogoneae}:

 

tribe Paspaleae J. Presl [1830] (syn. Arthropogoneae Pilg. ex Butzin [1972]):

 

incertae sedis: Reynaudia {basal to the other subtribes} {C4}.

 

subtribe Paspalinae Griseb. [1846] (syn. Paspalinae Griseb.[1853], Paspalidinae Keng & Keng f, ex S.L. Chen & Y.X. Jin [1984], Reimarochloinae Caro [1982]): Aakia {C4}, Acostia {C4}, Anthaenantia (syn. Leptocoryphium) {C4}, Anthaenantiopsis {C4}, Axonopus (syn. Centrochloa, Ophiochloa) {C4}, Baptorhachis {C4}, Echinolaena {C3}, Gerritea {C3}, Hildaea {C3}, Hopia {C4}, Ichnanthus {C3}, Ocellochloa {C3}, Oedochloa {C3}, Osvaldoa {C4}, Paspalum (syn. Thrasya, Thrasyopsis, Reimarochloa, Spheneria) {C4}, Renvoizea {C3}, Streptostachys {C3}.

 

subtribe Otachyriinae Butzin [1970]: Hymenachne (syn. Aconisia, Dallwatsonia) {C3}, Otachyrium {C3}, Plagiantha {C3}, Rugoloa {C3}, Steinchisma (syn. Cliffordiochloa, Fasciculochloa) {C3 and mixed C3 C4}.

 

subtribe Arthropogoninae Butzin [1972]: Achlaena {C4}, Altoparadisium {C4}, Apochloa {C3}, Arthropogon {C4}, Canastra {C3}, Coleataenia (syn. Sorengia) {C4}, Cyphonanthus {C4}, Homolepis {C3 and mixed C3 C4?}, Keratochlaena (syn. Sclerochlamys) {C4}, Mesosetum {C4}, Oncorachis {C4}, Oplismenopsis {C3}, Phanopyrum {C3}, Stephostachys {C3}, Tatianyx {C4}, Triscenia {C3}.

 

tribe Arundinelleae Stapf [1898] (syn. tribe Garnotieae Tateoka [1957]; subtribe Arundinellinae Honda [1930], Garnotiinae Pilg. [1956]): Arundinella {C4}, Garnotia {C4}, Jansenella {C3}.

 

tribe Andropogoneae Dumort. [1824] (syn. Sacchareae Dumort. [1824], Coiceae Nakai [1943], Euchlaeneae Nakai [1943], Imperateae Godr. & Gren. [1855], Maydeae Dumort. [1824, nom. illeg.], Ophiureae Dumort. [1824], Rottboellieae Kunth [1829], Saccharinae Rchb. ex Horan. [1847{rank tribe or subfam.?}], Tripsaceae C.E. Hubb. ex Nakai [1943], Zeeae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Zeeae Nakai [1943]) {Papers by Hodkinson et al., 2002, Skendzic et al., 2007, and Estep, et al.2014, portend lots of problems for classification within this tribe} {all C4}:

 

incertae sedis: Apluda {subtribe Apludinae Hook.f. [1896]) entangled with Saccharinae}, Chrysopogon (syn. Vetiveria) {Chrysopogon and Thelepogon appear to be sisters and isolated from other tribes}, Eulaliopsis, Microstegium (syn. Ischnochloa), Sehima, Thelepogon.

 

subtribe Arthraxoninae Benth. [1881]: Arthraxon.

 

subtribe Tripsacinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. Maydinae Harv. [1868, nom. illeg.], Vossiastae Stapf [1917], Zeinae Tzvelev [1968]): Elionurus {orth. var. Elyonurus}, Oxyrhachis, Rhytachne, Tripsacum, Vossia, Urelytrum, Zea (syn. Euchlaena).

 

subtribe Chionachninae Clayton [1981]: Chionachne, Cyathorhachis, Polytoca, Sclerachne, Trilobachne.

 

subtribe Coicinae Rchb. ex Clayton & Renvoize [1986] (syn. Coicinae Rchb. [1828, unranked]) {Apparently sister to Rottboelliinae}: Coix.

 

subtribe Rottboelliinae J. Presl [1830] {probably polyphyletic}: Chasmopodium, Eremochloa, Glyphochloa, Hackelochloa, Hemarthria, Heteropholis, Jardinea {a segregate of Phacelurus},Lasiurus, Loxodera, Manisuris, Mnesithea, Ophiuros, Phacelurus (syn. Thyrsia) {apparently polyphyletic}, Ratzeburgia, Rottboellia (syn. Coelorachis), Thaumastochloa.

 

subtribe Ischaeminae J. Presl [1830] (syn. Dimeriinae Hack ex C.E. Hubb. [1934], Dimeriinae Hack [1887, nom. nud.]): Andropterum, Dimeria, Ischaemum, Kerriochloa, Nanooravia {possibly = Dimeria}, Pogonachne, Triplopogon.

 

subtribe Germainiinae Clayton [1972] (syn. Apocopidinae Keng [1939, nom. inval.]): Apocopis, Germainia, Lophopogon, Pogonatherum.

 

subtribe Saccharinae Griseb. [1846] (syn. Amphilophiastrae Stapf [1917], Erianthinae Hack. [1883]; Polliniastrae Stapf [1917], Sorghinae Stapf [1917] as Sorghastrae; Sorgha Bluff, Nees & Schauer [1836, unranked]): Agenium, Asthenochloa, Cleistachne, Erianthus, Eriochrysis (syn. Leptosaccharum), Euclasta (syn. Indochloa), Eulalia s.s. {s.l. is apparently polyphyletic}, Hemisorghum { = Sorghum?}, Homozeugos, Imperata, Lasiorhachis, Leptatherum (syn. Polliniopsis ), Miscanthidium, Miscanthus (syn. Diandranthus, Rubimons, Triarrhena, Tenacistachya), Narenga, Polytrias, Pseudodichanthium,Pseudopogonatherum, Pseudosorghum {= Eulalia?}, Saccharum s.s., Sclerostachya, Veldkampia, Sorghastrum, Sorghum (syn. Sarga, Vacoparis), Tripidium {seems related to Imperata and Erianthus s.s., probably reticulate}, Trachypogon.

 

subtribe Andropogoninae J. Presl [1830] (syn. Anadelphiastrae Stapf [1917], Anthistiriinae J. Presl [1830], Bothriochloinae Keng [1939, nom. inval.], Heteropogonastrae Stapf [1917], Hyparrheniastrae Stapf [1917], Hypogyniastrae Stapf [1917], Schizachyriastrae Stapf [1917], Themedastrae Stapf [1917]): Anadelphia, Andropogon (syn. Hypogynium), Bhidea, Bothriochloa, Capillipedium, Clausospicula, Cymbopogon, Dichanthium, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Elymandra, Eremopogon, Exotheca, Heteropogon, Hyparrhenia, Hyperthelia, Iseilema, Lakshimia, Monocymbium, Parahyparrhenia, Pseudanthistiria, Schizachyrium, Spathia, Spodiopogon (syn. Eccoilopus), Themeda.

 

 

 

subfamily Arundinoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. tribe Arundinoideae Tateoka [1957, isonym], Phragmitoideae Parodi [1958, nom. inval.], Phragmitoideae Parodi ex Caro [1982]; Arundinaceae Burmeist. [1837, unranked], {sister to Micrairoideae} {C3}:

 

tribe Arundineae Dumort. [1824] (syn. tribe Amphipogoneae L. Watson & T.D. Macfarl. [2002]; subtribe Arundininae Miq. [1857]): Amphipogon (syn. Diplopogon), Arundo, Dregeochloa {fide Teisher 2017}, Monachather.

 

tribe Molinieae Jirsek [1966]:

 

incertae sedis: Leptagrostis, Piptophyllum, Zenkeria. {Hardion et al. in press, indicate this is near Micraira}

 

subtribe Crinipinae Conert, [1961] {emend Linder et al. (1997) on the Crinipoid group; emend Teisher here}: Crinipes, Elytrophorus, Styppeiochloa, and Pratochloa (syn. Eragrostis walteri).

 

subtribe Moliniinae Ohwi [1941] (syn. Phragmiteae Horan. [1847 {rank tribe or subtribe?}] {emend Teisher here}: Hakonechloa, Molinia, Moliniopsis, Phragmites.

 

 

 

subfamily Micrairoideae Pilg. [1956] {sister to Arundinoideae}:

 

tribe Micraireae Pilg. [1956] {C3}: Micraira.

 

tribe Eriachneae Eck-Borsboom [1980]: Eriachne (syn. Massia, Pheidochloa {fide Teisher 2016}) {C4}.

 

tribe Isachneae Benth. [1881] (syn. tribe Hubbardieae C.E. Hubb. [1960]; subtribe Isachninae Stapf [1898]) {C3}: Coelachne, Heteranthoecia, Hubbardia, Isachne, Limnopoa, Sphaerocaryum.

 

 

 

subfamily Danthonioideae H.P. Linder & N.P. Baker [2001] {sister to Chloridoideae} {C3}:

 

      incertae sedis: Danthonidium.

 

tribe Danthonieae Zotov. [1963] (syn. Cortaderieae Zotov. [1963]; subtribe Cortaderinae Conert [1961], Danthoniinae Fr. [1835]): Austroderia, Capeochloa, Chaetobromus, Chimaerochloa, Chionochloa, Cortaderia (syn. Lamprothyrsus), Danthonia, Geochloa, Merxmuellera, Notochloe, Pentameris (syn. Pentaschistis, Poagrostis, Prionanthium), Phaenanthoecium {fide Teisher 2017}, Plinthanthesis, Pseudopentameris, Rytidosperma (syn. Monostachya, Notodanthonia, Pyrrhanthera), Schismus (syn. Karroochloa), Tenaxia, Tribolium.

 

 

 

subfamily Chloridoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. [1833] (syn. tribe Eragrostoideae Pilg. [1956]; Chlorideae Burmeist [1837, unranked], Pappophorae Burmeist. [1837, unranked]) {sister to Danthonioideae}:

 

incertae sedis: Gossweilerochloa, Indopoa, Lepturopetium, Myriostachya, Pogonochloa, Pseudozoysia, Silentvalleya.

 

tribe Centropodieae P.M. Peterson, N.P. Barker & H.P. Linder [2011]: Centropodia {C4}, Ellisochloa {C3}.

 

tribe Triraphideae P.M. Peterson [2010] (syn. subtribe Triraphidinae Stapf [1917]) {C4}: Habrochloa, Neyraudia, Triraphis (syn. Nematopoa).

 

tribe Eragrostideae Stapf [1898] (syn. supertribe Eragrostodae L. Liu [1980]; tribe Unioleae Roshev. ex C.S. Campb. [1985]) {C4}:

 

subtribe Cotteinae Reeder [1965]: Cottea, Enneapogon, Kaokochloa, Schmidtia.

 

subtribe Eragrostidinae J. Presl [1830]: Cladoraphis, Eragrostis (syn. Acamptoclados, Catalepis, Diandrochloa, Ectrosia,Ectrosiopsis, Harpachne, Heterachne, Neeragrostis, Planichloa, Pogonarthria, Psammagrostis, Viguierella),Richardsiella, Steirachne, Stiburus (syn. Triphlebia Stapf).

 

subtribe Unioliinae Clayton [1982]: Entoplocamia, Fingerhuthia, Tetrachaete, Tetrachne, Uniola (syn. Leptochloopsis).

 

tribe Zoysieae Benth. [1881] (syn. Spartineae Steele [1847], Sporoboleae Stapf [1898]) {C4}:

 

subtribe Sporobolinae Benth. [1881] (syn. Crypsidinae Maire & Weiler [1953, nom. inval.], Spartininae Maire & Weiler [1953, nom. inval.]): Psilolemma, Sporobolus (nom. cons.; syn. Calamovilfa, Crypsis, Heleochloa, Spartina, Thellungia).

 

subtribe Zoysiinae Benth. [1878]: Urochondra, Zoysia.

 

tribe Cynodonteae Dumort. [1824] (syn. Aeluropodieae Nevski ex Bor [1965], Chlorideae Rchb. [1828, unranked], Chlorideae Trin. [1824, nom. illeg. superfl, later than Dumort., and included Cynodon], Jouveae Pilg. [1956], Leptureae Dumort. [1824, as Lepiureae], Monermeae C.E. Hubb. [1948, nom. inval.], Nazieae Hitchc. [1920, nom. illeg.], Pappophoreae Kunth [1829], Perotideae C.E. Hubb. [1960], Pommereulleae Bor [1960], Trageae Hitchc. [1927], Triodieae S.W.L. Jacobs [2004] {C4}:

 

incertae sedis: Kampochloa, Lepturidium, Sclerodactylon, Vietnamochloa.

 

subtribe Aeluropodinae P.M. Peterson [2010] (syn. Aeluropodinae Jacq.-Fl. [1962, nom. inval.]): Aeluropus, Odyssea s.s. {reticulate}.

 

subtribe Dactylocteniinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2016]: Acrachne {reticulate}, Brachychloa, Dactyloctenium, Neobouteloua.

 

subtribe Eleusininae Dumort. [1829] (syn. Astreblinae Clayton [1982], Chloridinae J. Presl [1830], Cynodontinae Tzvelev [1968], Diplachninae Rouy [1913], Lepturinae Benth. [1881], Monerminae Janch. [1953, nom. nud.], Pommereullinae Potztal [1969]): Afrotrichloris, Apochiton, Astrebla, Austrochloris, Chloris (syn. Lintonia, Ochthochloa), Chrysochloa, Coelachyrum (syn. Coelachyropsis), Cynodon, (syn. Brachyachne) Daknopholis, Dinebra {reticulate} (syn. Drake-Brockmania, Heterocarpha, Oxydenia), Diplachne, Disakisperma (syn. Cypholepis), Eleusine, Enteropogon, Eustachys, Harpochloa, Leptochloa (syn. Trichloris), Lepturus, Micrachne, Microchloa (syn. Rendlia), Neostapfiella,Oxychloris, Pommereulla, Rheochloa, Schoenefeldia, Stapfochloa, Tetrapogon (syn. Saugetia).

 

subtribe Orcuttiinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]: Neostapfia, Orcuttia (syn. Tuctoria).

 

subtribe Orininae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2016]: Cleistogenes (syn. Kengia), Orinus.

 

subtribe Pappophorinae Dumort. [1829] (syn. Tridentinae Keng & Keng f. [1960]): Neesiochloa, Pappophorum, Tridens s.s. (syn. Antonella).

 

subtribe Triodiinae Benth. [1881]: Triodia (syn. Monodia, Plectrachne, Symplectrodia).

 

subtribe Tripogoninae Stapf [1917]: Desmostachya, Eragrostiella, Halopyrum, Melanocenchris, Oropetium, Tripogon, Tripogonella.

 

       supersubtribe Boutelouodinae P.M. Peterson & Romasch. [2017] {Boutelouinae + Hilariinae + Monanthochloinae + Muhlenbergiinae + Scleropogoninae + Traginae}:

 

subtribe Allolepiinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Allolepis.

 

subtribe Boutelouinae Stapf [1917]: Bouteloua (syn. Buchloe, Buchlomimus, Cathestecum, Chondrosum, Cyclostachya, Griffithsochloa, Opizia, Pentarrhaphis, Pringleochloa, Soderstromia).

 

subtribe Hilariinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]: Hilaria (syn. Pleuraphis).

 

subtribe Jouveinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Jouvea.

 

subtribe Kaliniinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Kalinia.

 

subtribe Monanthochloinae Pilg. ex Potztal [1969] (syn. Distichlinae Parodi [1946, nom. nud.]): Distichlis (syn. Monanthochloe, Reederochloa).

 

subtribe Muhlenbergiinae Pilg. [1956] (syn. Lycurinae Pilg. [1956]): Muhlenbergia (syn. Aegopogon, Bealia, Blepharoneuron, Chaboissaea, Lycurus, Pereilema, Redfieldia, Schaffnerella, Schedonnardus).

 

subtribe Scleropogoninae Pilg. [1956] (syn. Munroinae Parodi ex P.M. Peterson [1995]): Blepharidachne, Dasyochloa, Erioneuron, Munroa, Scleropogon, Swallenia.

 

subtribe Sohnsiinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2017]: Sohnsia.

 

subtribe Traginae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007] (syn. Lappaginineae Link ex Endl. [1830, nom. illeg.], Tragineae Rchb. [1845, unranked]): Monelytrum, Orthacanthus, Pogononeura, Polevansia, Tragus, Willkommia (syn. Willbleibia).

 

       supersubtribe Gouiniodinae P.M. Peterson & Romasch. [2017] {Cteniinae + Farragininae + Gouiniinae + Hubbardochlinae + Perotidinae + Trichoneurinae + Zaqiqahinae}:

 

subtribe Cteniinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Ctenium.

 

subtribe Farragininae P. M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Craspedorhachis, Farrago.

 

subtribe Gouiniinae P.M. Peterson & Columbus [2007]): Gouinia, Schenckochloa, Tridentopsis, Triplasiella, Triplasis, Vaseyochloa.

 

subtribe Hubbardochloinae Auquire [1980] (syn. Gymnopogoninae P. M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]): Bewsia, Decaryella,Dignathia, Gymnopogon, Hubbardochloa, Leptocarydion, Leptothrium (syn. Latipes),  Lophacme.

 

subtribe Perotidinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Mosdenia, Perotis (syn. Lopholepis, Toliara), Trigonochloa.

 

subtribe Trichoneurinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2014]: Trichoneura.

 

subtribe Zaqiqahinae P.M. Peterson, Romasch. & Y. Herrera [2016]: Zaqiqah.

 

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